PLATO in the context of the extrasolar planet research Giusi Micela (INAF-OAPa) G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Outline Cosmic Vision context Relevance of transits for extrasolar planet search PLATO contribution Beyond PLATO
G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Cosmic Vision On 18 October 2007, ESA selected for an Assessment Study 6 M-class and 3 L-class candidate mission concepts resulting from the first Call for Mission for the Cosmic Vision plan. These mission concepts are competing for launch opportunities in 2017/2018. down-selection for definition phase for M-class missions in fall 2009 final selection for flight of M-class mission in 2011 G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009
M-class missions Solar mission Space Plasmas NEO Dark energy (Dune + Space) Infrared (Japan) Extrasolar planets G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Known exoplanets 316 planets in 270
systems, Oct 1995 Feb 2009 from RV searches. 33 multiple systems. 57 Transiting planets 7 from microlensing surveys. + a few others G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 ESP population synthesis Left panel: Core accretion+migration simulations by Ida & Lin (2004), showing gas giants, ice giants, rocky planets. around solar-like stars Right panel: Radial-velocity discovered planets. G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009
Planetary search methods domains Transits due to Earth-like planets can be detected with accurate (10-4) photometric searches. only from space G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 New planets are continuously discovered.
The number of new discovered transits is quickly increasing (~2/3 in the last two years) G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Transits For an edge-on orbit, transit duration is: t (PR*) / (a) P=period, a=semi-major axis of orbit Probability of transit Ptransit R* / a For Earth (P=1yr, a=1AU), Ptransit=0.5%
But for close, hot Jupiters, Ptransit=10% Of course, to detect Earths at 1 AU we need to monitor the star for up to 1 year G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Transits Advantages Easy. Can be done with small, cheap telescopes Possible to detect low mass planets, including Earths, especially from space Disadvantages Probability of seeing a transit is low Need to observe many stars simultaneously
Easy to confuse with starspots, binary/triple systems Needs radial velocity measurements for confirmation, masses G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Transits Radial velocity + Transits Porb, dist, mass, radius, density, inclination Transits from ground Jupiters Transits from space Earths G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Radial velocity follow up are needed to
determine the properties of transit discovered planets Critical point. Transits from space may now detect earth-size planets bottle neck due to limiting vrad measurement capabilities. We need to measure ~cm/sec Very stable spectroscopes, new generation telescopes G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 We need also to know very well the host properties Rpl = f(R*) Mpl = f(M*) age = age*
Bright stars!! G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Observational properties Mass distribution for vrad-discovered planet (upper) and transiting planets (lower) G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Observational properties Orbital distance distribution for vraddiscovered planet
(upper) and transiting planets (lower) G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 The first space transit mission: CoRoT French mission with ESA contribution Launch Dec. 2006 , extension of 3 years more
Extrasolar planets and asteroseismology Six planets already discovered Many candidates Very long follow up phase G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Convection Rotation and planetary Transits - CoRoT Wide field telescope (27cm aperture) with 4 deg field. Most stars from 1115Mag.
6 planets EXO-2 orbiting a young active star EXO-3 high mass, compact object EXO-7 rocky (2xR(Earth)) with P~0.85d G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 A&A Cover Convection Rotation and planetary Transits - CoRoT Wide field Planetary transits
G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 A&A Cover PLATO PLAnetary Transits & Oscillations of stars Next generation mission for ultra-high precision stellar photometry beyond CoRoT & Kepler Search for and characterisation of exoplanets + asteroseismology http://www.lesia.obspm.fr/cosmicvision/plato http://www.oact.inaf.it/plato/PPLC/Home.html Class-M mission under assessment study at ESA in the framework of Cosmic Vision programme
G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 The science objectives of PLATO PLAnetary Transits & Oscillations of stars main objective : evolution of exoplanetary systems (= planets + host stars) - the evolution of planets and that of their host stars are intimately linked - a complete & precise characterisation of host stars is necessary to measure exoplanet properties: mass, radius, age 1. compare planetary systems at various stages of evolution 2. correlation of planet evolution with that of their host stars = comparative exoplanetology Three kinds of observables : 1. detection & characterisation of planetary transits
2. seismic analysis of exoplanet host stars seismic analysis 3. complementary ground based follow-up (spectroscopy) - R*, M*, age - interior transit detection - Porb, Rp/R*, R*/a G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 spectrum, RV, photometry, imaging, - exoplanet confirmation - chemical composition of host stars - and of exoplanet atmospheres Scientific Requirements main science objectives
- detection and study of Earth-analog systems - exoplanets around the brightest stars, all sizes, all orbital periods - full characterisation of planet host stars, via seismic analysis high level science requirements -P1: > 20,000 bright (~ mV11) cool dwarfs (>F5V) with precise and reliable characterization including seismic analysis . We expect ~ 20 Earths -P2: > 80,000 bright cool dwarfs; detection of planets in the long runs and seismic analysis during step & stare phase - P3: ~ 1000 very bright stars (4 mV 8): targets for future instruments - P4: ~ 3000 very bright stars (4 mV 8): asteroseismology along the HR diagram
-P5: > 250,000 cool dwarfs; planets without stellar seismic analysis G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Scientific Requirements high level science requirements -P1: > 20,000 bright (~ mV11) cool dwarfs (>F5V); noise < 27 ppm in 1hr = 1 ppm in 30 d = req. seismic analysis - P2: > 80,000 bright cool dwarfs; noise < 80 ppm in 1hr during long pointing
= req. for 1Rearth but < 27 ppm in 1 hr during step & stare phase - P3: ~ 1000 very bright stars (4 mV 8) for 3 years: asteroseismology of specific targets - P4: ~ 3000 very bright stars (4 mV 8) for > 5 months: asteroseismology + planet search - P5: > 250,000 cool dwarfs; noise < 80 ppm in 1 hr for 3 years - very long monitoring 3 years G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 - very high duty cycle 95% Main Instrument Requirements
- very wide field: > 550 deg2 (CoRoT: 4 deg2; Kepler: 100 deg2) - 2 successive fields (2 x 3y) + step & stare phase (1y: e.g. 4 fields x 3 months) - large collecting area - very low instrumental noise, in particular satellite jitter 0.2 arcsec requirements for ground- and space-based follow-up - high precision radial velocity measurements: false-alarm elimination, masses - high resolution spectroscopy: chemical composition - differential spectroscopy: exoplanet atmosphere composition G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 The PLATO study organization ESA
study scientist, study manager, payload manager M. Fridlund R. Lindberg D. Lumb 2 industrial contractors ESA PSST PLATO Consortium Council Payload + SVM PPLC =
PLATO Payload Consortium PI: C. Catala Co-Pi: M. Deleuil study of payload system telescopes/optics Focal Plane onboard data processing ground data centre G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 PSC = PLATO Science Consortium PI: D. Pollacco
Co-Pis: G. Piotto H. Rauer S. Udry science case scientific preparation field characterisation and choice follow-up observations The PPLC Payload concept - fully dioptric design - 11cm pupil, 28x28 field - FPA: 4 CCDs 35842, 18 - 40 normal telescopes: full frame CCDs cadence 25s
8 mV 14 - 2 fast telescopes: frame transfer CCDs cadence 2.5s 4 mV 8 - overlapping line-of-sight concept - 2 long pointings (3 yrs) - 1 yr step & stare G. Micela observation, Bologna 5/03/2009 continuous field rotation every 3 months Performance of PPLC baseline design
magnitude for noise 27 ppm in 1 hr highest priority requirement: > 20,000 cool dwarfs with noise < 27 ppm in 1 hr 26500 61000 303000 performance of initial industrial design, now being improved G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 P1 sample P2 sample P5 sample
Performance of PPLC baseline design G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Performances planets down to 0.6 Rearth around G-type stars with mV=9.6-11.1 with seismic analysis (26,500 stars) P1 transit depth
detected at 3 if duration = 10h G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 planets down to 1 Rearth around late-type stars with mV12-13 (>300,000 stars; incl. 60,000 with potential seismic analysis ) P2 P5 telluric planets around stars up to A-type with mV=9.6-11.1
PLATO outcome (1) PLATO will search planets orbiting bright stars. It will therefore possible to follow up the exo-planetary system with ground based and space telescopes (e.g., ELT, JWST, etc. ) to obtain a complete characterization of the planet, its atmosphere, and the whole planetary system PLATO is the only instrument with this capability! G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 PLATO outcome (2)
PLATO will detect Earth-like planets Small size planets orbiting solar-type stars with about 1 year period The exo-planets discovered by PLATO can be fully characterized The same data that PLATO acquires for the planet search, are used to derive the internal structure of the hosting stars (by asteroseismology). This is mandatory to: - Precisely measure properties of exoplanets: mass, radius, age - Comparatively study planetary systems of different age
- Correlate the planet and hosting star evolution. G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 PLATO outcome (3) PLATO will provide: a complete and unbiased database to understand the evolution of stars and their planets PLATO will bring us: -complete characterization of large number of exoplanets (size, mass, age,density)
- improvement of exoplanet statistics - correlation planetary versus stellar evolution - decisive progress in stellar and planetary evolution modelling G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Date: March 6 * Mission: Kepler Launch Vehicle: United Launch Alliance Delta II Launch Site: Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 17 - Pad 17-B Launch Time: 10:49:57 p.m. EST Description: The Kepler Mission, a NASA Discovery mission, is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to detect and characterize hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the
habitable zone. G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Kepler Results (!) Time will tell but: 35 hot Jupiters bright enough for RV confirmation (14th mag) - HARPS-N WHT. Superearths? Yes - probably many Terrestrial planets? Probably Earth analogs?? but difficult to be confirmed
through follow up \ G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Next steps After characterizing the star-planet systems Substantial progress in theories of planet formation for giant and terrestrial planets Atmospheric properties (giants soon, earths ?) Albedo, clouds, dynamics, temperature, composition Habitability conditions (environment) Biosignatures, identification and observations G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009
Next steps Technical issues The `best technology interferometry or coronography from space Ids of the best target samples: nearby solar type very quiet stars with planet(s) in habitable zone PLATO could furnish some G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Next steps Significant effort of the community to prepare a roadmap for extrasolar planetary science
ESA EPR-AT (Exo-Planet Roadmap Advisory Team): will deliver a document next year (spring) meeting open to the community Jan-Feb 2010 (http://sci.esa.int/sciencee/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=42830) BLUE DOTS: Initiative of the community to prepare a roadmap for detection and characterization of habitable exoplanets. Conference in Barcelona (Sept. 2009) (http://www.blue-dots.net) G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009 Just to conclude Extrasolar planet science is growing very quickly A fluorishing of new projects and instruments from ground and from the space
with PLATO we will know, on solid statistical bases, which kind of planetary systems exist and their properties PLATO is part of a roadmap that will bring us in some decades (?) to biosignature detection in extrasolar planet atmospheres G. Micela Bologna 5/03/2009
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