Skarn Deposits & Their Mode Of Formation SURNAME & INITIALS STUDENT NUMBER MBEDZI A. 11602169 RAMAREMISA H. 11606440
MAHOSI F. F. 11606113 MAKONDELELE T. P. 11606635 NOBELA V. 11594774 Introduction
Definition Skarn refers to calcium-bearing silicates, silicate gangue or waste rock of any age often associated with sulfide deposits of different metals which consequently form as a result of a magma body coming in contact with carbonate sedimentary rocks such as limestone and dolostone. Skarn deposits are mineral occurrences of economically valuable commodities that occur in the skarn environment or as a result of the process of skarnitisation i.e. the process at which the hot waters (fluids) carrying a plethora of metals mix in the contact zone, dissolve calcium-rich carbonate rocks, and convert the host carbonate rock to skarn deposits in a metamorphic known as metasomatism. Evolution Of Skarn
Deposits The formation of skarn deposits is a dynamic process rather than a simple ideal model and this was also recognised by early skarn researchers e.g. Lindgren, 1902; Barrell, 1907; Goldschmidt, 1911; etc. The term skarn was first published by Tornebohm where he stated As subordinate layers in the feldspar-poor felsic volcanic rocks, there appear peculiar dark rocks which also are the ores host rock. These rocks are in the Persberg area denoted skarn, a word which likely can be used as a collective term for all such odd rocks occurring alongside the ores. Tornebohm then goes on to describe garnet-rich brunskarn (brown skarn) and pyroxene-rich gronskarn (green skarn). The skarns have gained recognition through their process of formation, and their complex mineralogical association including the ore deposits.
Cont. Zharikov (1970) was perhaps the first to describe the systematic variations in skarn mineralogy among the major skarn classes. He used phase equilibria, mineral compatibilities, and compositional variations in solid solution series to describe and predict characteristic mineral assemblages for different skarn types. His observations have been extended by Burt (1972) and Einaudi et al.
(1981) to include a wide variety of deposit types and the mineralogical variations between types. Even at this present world, skarn geology have remained interesting for both economic purposes and academic adventure. Therefore, this lays the basis of continual studies of skarn geology. Mode Of Formation Skarns are formed by mass chemical transportation and reactions
between adjacent lithologies. NB: Skarns need not be of igneous in origin i.e. two sedimentary layers can react to exchange metals during metamorphism e.g. banded iron formation and limestone to form skarns. At widest use, skarn refers to metasomatised zones of wall rock adjacent to granites i.e. are intimately associated with granite intrusions.
Cont. This is because granitic magmas are more prone to generating late stage fluid rich silica with incompatible elements and halides because they are generally more potassic, oxidised and hydrous. For example, the felsic minerals contained in the granite are evident to this phenomenon. Minerals Orthoclase
Chemical Composition KAlSi3O8 Muscovite KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F, OH)2 (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O) Cont. Generally, skarns are formed at temperature ranges of roughly 400 oC to 650oC and the pressure variables at depths of 1 to 10+ km. Cont.
Interpretation of igneous texture may serve as clue to solve the depth at which not only intrusive rocks are emplaced, but also skarn is formed e.g. intrusive rocks with equigranular texture may indicate deep formation level. Skarns may develop in areas where fissures intersect limestone as vein like structures but in deep skarn environment, rocks tends to deform in a ductile manner, rather than fracture i.e. intrusive contact with skarn at depth tends to be sub-parallel to joints.
In such occurrences, skarn is formed along bedding planes or clack of the sedimentary rocks resulting into strata-bound deposits. Cont. Classification of Skarns Skarns are classified according to their origin, dominant mineralogy and
other characteristics. Skarns of igneous origin Exoskarns - occur at and outside the granite which produced them, and are alterations of wall rocks. Exoskarns constitute the majority of the worlds economic skarn deposits Endoskarns - form within the granite mass itself, usually late in the intrusive emplacement and consist of cross-cutting stockworks, cooling joints and around the margins and uppermost sections of the granite itself. Endoskarns are rarer, because fluids created by granite are usually formed in equilibrium with the minerals of the granite.
Cont. Cont. Endoskarns seem to form in granitic magmas which lose earlier more dilute hydrous fluids thereby creating a less dilute last spurt of exsolved fluids. Boiling of the exsolved fluid is also considered important, as this creates a highly saline, incompatible-element-rich fluid phase and a highly volatile gas phase. Skarns which are created by reaction between metamorphic-sedimentary layers are called chemical skarns, and also known as skarnoids. Chemical skarns can form from isochemical metamorphism of thinly interlayered shale and carbonate units where metasomatic transfer of
components between adjacent lithologies may occur on a small scale (perhaps centimetres). Cont. Skarns may be classified according to the dominant mineralogy: Magnesium skarns (dominant mineral forsterite). Calcic skarns (dominant mineral andradite). This has gave rise to skarn deposits to be described according to their dominant economic metal or mineral present e.g. copper, iron, tungsten, zinc-lead, molybdenum, tin, talc etc.
Uncommon types of skarns are formed in contact with sulfidic or carbonaceous rocks such as black shales, graphite shales, banded iron formations and, occasionally, salt or evaporites. In such types, fluids react less via chemical exchange of ions, because of the redox-oxidation potential of the wall rocks. Skarn Mineralogy The identification and classification of skarn deposits is based on their
mineralogy. Although many skarn minerals are typical rock-forming minerals some are less abundant and most have compositional variations that can yield significant information about the environment of formation. Some minerals such as quartz and calcite are present in almost all skarns. Other minerals as humite, periclase, phlogopite, talc, serpentine and brucite are typical of magnesian skarns but are absent from most other skarn types. Additionally there are many tin, boron, beryllium, and fluorine-bearing minerals which have very restricted but locally important parageneses.
Cont. The main differences between amphiboles in different skarn types are variations in the amounts of Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca, Al, Na and K. Amphiboles in Au, W and Sn skarns are progressively more aluminous (actinolitehastingsite-hornblende); amphiboles in Cu, Mo and Fe are progressively more iron rich in the tremolite-actinolite series; and amphiboles in zinc skarns are both Mn rich and Ca deficient, ranging from actinolite to dannemorite. The minerals which are most useful for both classification and exploration are those, such as garnet, pyroxene and amphibole which are present in all skarn types and which show marked compositional variability. For example, the manganiferous pyroxene, johannsenite is found almost exclusively in zinc skarns. Its presents without much further supporting information is definitive of the skarn type.
Skarn Zonation In most skarns, there is a general zonation pattern of proximal garnet, distal pyroxene and vesuvianite (or a pyroxene such as wollastonite, bustamite or rhodonite) at the contact between skarn and marble. In addition, individual skarn minerals may display systematic colour or compositional variations within the larger zonation pattern. For example, garnet is commonly dark red-brown in proximal occurrences, becomes
lighter brown in more distal occurrences and is pale green near the marble front. For some skarn systems, these zonation patterns can be stretched out for several kilometres and can provide a significant exploration guide Cont. Exoskarns show zoning of both silicate and ore minerals whereas endoskarn displays zonation resulting from the progressive addition (back
flushing) of calcium and carbon dioxide into the igneous protolith. Types of Skarn Deposits Groupings of skarn deposits can be based on descriptive features such as protolith composition, rock type and dominant economic metal(s) as well as genetic features such as mechanism of fluid movement, temperature of formation and extent of magmatic involvement. Seven major skarn types (Fe, Au, W, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Sn) have received significant modern study and several others (including F, C, Pt, U and REE) are locally important. Iron Skarn The largest skarn deposits are the iron skarns. They are mined for their magnetite content and although minor amounts of Cu, Co, Ni and Au may be present, iron is typically the only
commodity recovered. Many deposits are very large (>500 million tons, with>300 million tons contained Fe) and consist dominantly of magnetite, with only minor silicate gangue. Cont. In some cases, they contain significant amounts of copper and are transitional to more typical copper skarns. They are formed when iron-rich plutons intrudes into limestone and volcanic wall rocks, and the available iron in solution tends to form
magnetite rather than andradite or hedenbergile. Gold skarns Most high-grade gold skarns are associated reduced (ilmenite-bearing, Fe3+/Fe2+ <0.75), diorite-granodiorite plutons and dyke or sill complexes. Such skarns are dominated by iron-rich pyroxene (typically >Hd 50); proximal zones can contain abundant intermediate grandite garnet. Cont. Other common minerals include potassium feldspar, scapolite, vesuvianite, and apatite and high chlorine aluminous amphibole. Distal or early zones contain biotite or potassium feldspar hornfels which extend for hundreds of meters beyond massive skarn. Due to
clastic rich, carbonaceous nature of sedimentary rocks in these deposits, most skarn is relatively fine grained. Some gold skarns contain unusual late prehnite or wollastonite retrograde alteration. Cont. Zinc skarns zinc skarns occur in continental settings associated with either subduction or rifting. They are mined for ores of zinc, lead and silver although zinc is usually dominant. They Related igneous rocks span a wide range of compositions, from deepseated batholiths to shallow dyke-sill complexes to surface volcanic extrusions. The common thread linking most zinc skarn ores is their
occurrence distal to associated igneous rocks. Cont. Zinc skarns can be subdivided according to several criteria, including distance from magmatic source, temperature of formation, relative proportion of skarn and sulphide minerals and geometric shape of the ore body. skarn minerals such as garnet and pyroxene is important because it indicates a restricted geochemical environment which is entirely distinct from other ore types such as Mississippi Valley-type deposits which also contain Zn-Pb-Ag ores but which absolutely lack skarn minerals. Besides their Zn-Pb-Ag metal content, zinc skarns can be distinguished
from other skarn types by their distinctive manganese and iron-rich mineralogy, by their occurrence along structural and lithological contacts and by the absence of significant metamorphic aureoles centred on the skarn. Cont. Almost all skarn minerals in these deposits can be enriched in manganese, including garnet, pyroxene, olivine, ilvite, pyroxenoid, amphibole, chlorire and serpentine. Other types Other types of skarn deposits includes: tungsten, copper, molybdenum and tin which can be found in association with the other types discussed above e.g. copper skarns are highly associated with iron or
sometimes gold and zinc. Conclusion Whether one thinks of skarn as a rock type or as an alteration of previously existing rocks, skarns are mappable in the field and the basic map unit is defined by skarn mineralogy. A detailed map showing the distribution of skarn mineral phases will yield important information about the overall size, characteristics and genesis of a skarn system. Of course, the skarn mineralogy needs to be interpreted in terms of lithology, structure and timing. Skarns are distinct from many other types of ore deposits. Almost all large skarn deposits are directly related to igneous rocks. One of the most fundamental controls of skarn mineralogy and metal content is the genesis
and crystallisation history of the associated pluton. The late stage hydrothermal evolution of the pluton is mirrored by alteration and mineralization in the surrounding rocks. The reactivity of sedimentary rocks, particularly carbonate rocks, accounts for the abundance of skarns in most localities where magma is emplaced in the upper crust. Any Questions ? Back up
Example of world class copper skarn deposits. Antamina is the worlds largest copper-zinc skarn deposit. The Antamina copper-zinc mine is located in the Andes Mountains of Peru, approximately 285km north of Lima in the Department of Ancash. The elevation of the mine is 4,300m above sea level. The Ok Tedi mine is located in the remote Star Mountains of Papua New Guineas Western Province. Ok Tedi Mining Limited (OTML) operates the mine. skarns may occur in association with porphyry copper deposits. For example, the Twin Buttes in Arizona and Bingham Canyon in Utah host both porphyry and skarn deposits.
Cont. Pine Creek Mine (tungsten), Inyo County, California, USA. Avebury Mine (Nikel), Zeehan, Tasmania, (Australia). Cont. Cont.
Landing on Mars: Since Mars has only about 40% of the gravity that Earth has landing a heavy shuttle on the surface of Mars would be difficult. Landing Locations: Likely sites are caves near the Arsia Mons volcano, Valles Marineris...
More relevant as in MF, for example. Longer-time horizons. FX risk. Financial products and methods need to be adapted to the specific needs of agricultural stakeholders (shared risk mechanisms such as guarantees). Government interventions, e.g. price controls, subsidies->market distortions.
Women in Britain. Late 1941: women were conscripted as the workforce demanded more production. All women 20 and up had to register for war work. Unless they were ill, pregnant or had small children at home. These women were sent...
Hypothesis Lexical resources acquisition with games Free (sometimes people are even willing to pay for playing) Fast Rather good quality (precision and recall) Resources targeted Lexical network Nodes Terms word usage (instead of meanings…) difficulty, frequency, trust… levels Relations ...