Unpacking the challenges of urban SDG target and human settlements indicators monitoring Robert P Ndugwa, PhD Head Global Urban Observatory Unit UN-Habitat, Nairobi, Kenya Email: [email protected] Africa Agenda 2063 Paris climate aggreement The Sustainable Development Goals SDG Goal 11 + Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable 11 Targets 11.1 Housing and Slums 11.2 Sustainable Transport 11.3 Participatory Planning 11.4 Cultural Heritage 11.5 Disaster risk Reduction 11.6 Air Quality and Waste Management 11.7 Public spaces
11.a Rural-urban and regional planning 11.b Mitigation of Climate Change, Resilience 11.c LDCs support buildings 1.4.1 Basic services 1.4.2 Secure land rights The Sustainable Development Goals SDG Goal 11 + Targets/ indicators for human settlements with spatial analysis needs 11.1 Housing and Slums 11.2 Sustainable Transport 11.3 Participatory Planning 11.4 Cultural Heritage 11.5 Disaster Reduction 11.6 Air Quality and Waste Management 11.7 Public spaces 11.a Rural-urban and regional planning 11.b Mitigation of Climate Change, Resilience 11.c LDCs support buildings 1.4.1 Basic services 1.4.2 Secure land rights Goal 11 - Indicators Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable Targets Indicator
11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements, or inadequate housing 11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons. Proportion of the population that has convenient access to public transport disaggregated by age group, sex and persons with disabilities 11.3 By 2030,
enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries. Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate Percentage of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management which operate regularly and democratically Connecting the New Urban Agenda and the SDGs: (re)thinking UN-Habitats role Goal 11 - Indicators Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable Targets Indicator 11.4
Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world's cultural and natural heritage. Total expenditure (public and private) per capita spent on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by type of heritage (cultural, natural, mixed, World Heritage Centre designation), level of government (national, regional, and local/municipal), type of expenditure (operating expenditure/investment) and type of private funding (donations in kind, private non-profit sector, sponsorship) 11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations. Number of deaths, missing people, injured,
relocated or evacuated due to disasters per 100,000 people. Direct disaster economic loss in relation to global GDP, including disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services Connecting the New Urban Agenda and the SDGs: (re)thinking UN-Habitats role Goal 11 - Indicators Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable Targets 11.6 Indicator By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management. Percentage of urban solid waste regularly collected and with adequate final discharge with regards to the total waste generated by the city Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (i.e. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted) 11.7
By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities. Average share of the built-up area of cities that is open space for public use for all, by sex, age and persons with disabilities Proportion of persons victim of physical or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months Connecting the New Urban Agenda and the SDGs: (re)thinking UN-Habitats role Goal 11 - Indicators Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable Targets Indicator 11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, periurban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning.
Number of countries that are developing and implementing a National Urban Policy or Regional Development Plans that (a) respond to population dynamics, (b) ensure balanced territorial development, and (c) increase local fiscal space 11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels. Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 Number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies
Connecting the New Urban Agenda and the SDGs: (re)thinking UN-Habitats role Goal 11 - Indicators Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable Targets 11.c Indicator Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials. The proportion of financial support to the less developed countries (LDCs) that is allocated to the construction and retroffiting of sustainable, resilient and resource efficient buildings, utilizing local material (*) Connecting the New Urban Agenda and the SDGs: (re)thinking UN-Habitats role APPROVED
INDICATORS PROGRESS MADE AT INDICATOR LEVEL Target 1 Housing & slums 11.1 Proportion of urban population living in slums or informal settlements and inadequate housing Target 2 Transport 11.2 Proportion of the population that has a public transit stop (within 0.5 km .) Consultation with partners on-going Working with partners to prepare EGMs 2017 Consultation with partners on-going (WB) Working with partners to organise EGM 2017 Target 3 Planning 11.3 Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate Efficient land use Partnership with several teams EGM organized in NY June 2016 Finalizing 1st draft of a unified methodology
Target 3 Planning Percentage of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management which operate regularly and democratically APPROVED INDICATORS PROGRESS MADE AT INDICATOR LEVEL Target 3 Planning Percentage of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management which operate regularly and democratically Metadata prepared and submitted
No specific partnership EGM 2016/17 Target 6 11.6.1 Percentage of (urban) solid waste regularly Environmen collected and with adequate final discharge with t regards to the total waste generated by the city Working with partners to organise EGM 2017 APPROVED INDICATORS PROGRESS MADE AT INDICATOR LEVEL Target 7 Public space 11.7.1 The average share of the (total) built-up area of cities that is open space in public use for all Consultation with partnership Working with Urban Planning team EGM to be organized late 2017
Preparing a unified methodology APPROVED PROGRESS INDICATORS MADE AT INDICATOR LEVEL Target 11.a Rural-urban and regional planning 11.a.1 The number of countries that are developing and implementing national urban policy that (a) responds to population dynamics, (b) ensures balanced regional and territorial development, (c) prepares for infrastructure and service development, (d) promotes urban land-use efficiency, (e) enhances resilience to climate change, (f) protects public space and (g) develops effective urban governance systems; (h) increases local fiscal space. Consultation with partners Working with Regional/Metro Planning Unit EGM to be organized 2017
Agreeing on a unified methodology APPROVED PROGRESS INDICATORS MADE AT INDICATOR LEVEL Target 11.c LDCs support buildings 11.c.1 The proportion of financial support to the less developed countries (LDCs) that is allocated to the construction and retroffiting of sustainable, resilient and resource efficient buildings, utilizing local material Partnership with OECD and WB EGM to be organized 2017 Preparing a unified methodology Coordination issues Technical meetings- Global/Regional Indicator based EGMs (14x2 minimum) Definitions (cities, human settlements, public spaces, etc? ) Measurement challenges city as unit of analysis Spatial vs non-spatial data & - diversity/complexity of data sources Disaggregation at what levels and detail Capacity development challenges/strategies
Funding What have we done so far? Funding Mapping the opportunities Sharpening the measurement tools Coordination What have we done so far? Funding Dev Account support Norway funding Mapping the opportunities - 17 Themes 100 Indicators: CORE + SUPPORTING 20 cities piloted 40 members Data is third-party verified Excellent coverage, Comparability High cost, High capacity needed -
50+ settlements Collected data on slums/informal settlements Data used as form of advocacy for resource and service distribution Mobilizes communities - - - - - - - Platform for cooperation First forum 16-18 January 2017 (Cape Town, SA) Global Action Plan for modernization + strengthening of statistical system for SDG Data High-level Group for partnership, coordination + Capacity Building for post-2015 monitoring 111 Cities
Addresses urban governance data challenge Platform for exchange and good practice New/innovative ways communicating and mapping urban governance for dissemination Three thematic areas (legal, finance, governance) Launched 2012 400 cities in 20 countries Comparability framework for cities and countries Framework on Urban SDGs Metric and policy dialogue Integrates various indicators (from official SDG Indicator data set) Launched 2013 (since, 2 revisions) What regions: Africa Indicators cover 5 areas + 10 criteria Promotes integrated and multilevel urban strategies Database on Urban Law planning, management, financing 7 main categories Not complete (work in progress) Not all National Urban Plans available Flagship report 2016 Closely linked to development of NUA and H process Global Urban Observatory (UN-Habitat)
Global Cities Registry (World Council on City Data) Global Partnerships for Sustainable Development Data (UN World Data Forum) Know your City Community (UCLG/SDI) Global Geospatial Information Management (UN GGIM) Two year reports (2015 & 2016) + Aimed at strengthening science-policy interface Launched 2005 Linked to MDG (has yet to be updated for SDGs) 20+ indicators Uses GIS technology Produces Global Urban Indicator Database Online database system/software tool UrbanInfo Initiative also has Network component - 150+ partners (Governments, NGOs, Businesses) Data production and use oriented SDG as focal point -
- 194 partner countries, 14 International organization, 17 UN Agencies Geospatial information supporting Sustainable Development and post 2015 Development agenda - Launched 2015 Open data with robust citizen engagement 39 Cities US Cities only (with size specification) - Launched 2015 Funding in support of data processing Data to support post-2015/SDG Development - 11 Countries 23 Cities Knowledge sharing and management program collaborative engagement Products: studies, workshops, online data Works with existing cities networks
- Linked to CPI SDG indicators 6 dimensions, 18 sub-dimensions Avoid excessively sectorial approach Sub-divides by goal 11 targets - Monitoring on of main phases 10 focus areas Monitoring developed in context of NUP not separately - Public expenditure + financial accountability 7 pillars, 31 indicators, 94 dimensions Review key systems, processes and institutions Strictly financial - Future? UN World Data Forum (UN Statistical Commission) What Works Cities
(Bloomberg Philanthropies) Trust Fund for Statistical Capacity Building (World Bank Group) Trust Fund for Innovations in Development Data (World Bank Group) Urban Governance Survey (LSE Cities, UNH, UCLG, Mac Arthur Foundation) Global Platform for Sustainable Cities (GPSC) (WB with other Dev. Banks, UNEP, UNDP, UNJDO) Cities Prosperity Initiative Global Indicator (UN-H) SDG Goal 11 Monitoring Framework (based on CPJ in coop. with WHO, UNISDR, etc.) Cities Enabling Environment Rating (CA + UCLG) NUP Programme (UN-H, OECD, CA incl. NUP database) Urban Lex (UNH with partner Universities) PEFA (Improving Public Financial Management ) (EU, IMF, WB, SECO, France, Norway, Ukraine World Cities Report (UN-Habitat)
International Multistakeholder Panel on Sustainable Urbanization (GAP) - - Global Sustainable Development Report (GA) Sharpening the tools ---The City Prosperity Initiative Measuring city performance goes beyond Goal 11 or the Urban SDGs. Other urban issues are in different global frameworks e.g NUA, Paris Agreement, etc. UN-Habitat developed a tool to measure the prosperity and sustainability of cities. The City Prosperity Initiative (CPI) is a global initiative meant to assist decision makers to design effective policy interventions. http://cpi.unhabitat.org/ THE 6 DIMENSIONS OF URBAN PROSPERITY Urban Governance and Legislation Urban Planning and Design
Urban Economy and Municipal Finance Infrastructure Development Social Cohesion and Equity Urban Ecology and Environment The City Prosperity Initiative 1. A flexible monitoring framework that takes into account the contextual needs and particularities of cities and countries 3. An innovative tool based on spatial analysis that integrates indicators such as street connectivity, public
space, urban expansion CITY PROSPERITY INITIATIVE (CPI), September 2015 2. The CPI promotes integration in the implementation of a more sustainable urbanization model 4. As a multiscale tool the CPI supports decision-making from national urban policies to regional to citywide interventions 22 The City Prosperity Initiative e.g As an Innovative Tool based on Spatial Analysis STREET CONNECTIVITY AND SPATIAL INDICATORS The City Prosperity Initiative Why the CPI is proposed as the ideal Global Monitoring Framework for the New Urban Agenda and SDGs and is compliant with Africa Agenda 2063
Cities and countries that join the CPI are able to identify, quantify, and evaluate the progress on these agendas, avoiding duplication and systematizing the monitoring and reporting process The CPI is a tool for coordination, implementation and monitoring of Sustainable Development Goals and New Urban Agenda at local level The CPI integrates most of the urban Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) indicators A Global Initiative Already more than 300 cities around the world joined the CPI Going forward Timelines Advocacy work for urban related SDGs including a possible side 2017-2019 event in 2017 UNSC meeting Finalizing the guidance on the National Sample of cities March/April 2017 Organize the first technical meeting on human settlements
indicator Feb 2017 Regional workshops on human settlements indicator June 2017, Oct 2017, Jan 2018 Consultations and refinements of definitions By August 2017 For more information contact Robert Ndugwa [email protected]
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