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Postcolonial Literature Presented by Dibarbora Mattia and Digiusto Mattia I.I.S.S. BASSA FRIULANA - Polo liceale A. Einstein Cervignano del Friuli ANNO SCOLASTICO 2017/2018 1 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia cl. 5 ASA 04/01/2018

2 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia 04/01/2018 Main questions: 1. What does postcolonial literature mean? 2. Which were its causes and how did it develop itself? 3. Which are its characteristics? 3 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia

04/01/2018 Definition of the term postcolonial Postcolonial refers to both the period after colonisation and the one after independence (second half of the 20th century in general) Collection of theoretical and critical strategies used to examine the culture of former colonies of the European empires, and their relation to the rest of the world

4 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia 04/01/2018 Definition of the term postcolonial literature Literature written by people living in countries colonized by other nations Study of the interactions between European nations and the societies colonized in the modern period 5

Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia 04/01/2018 Definition of the term postcolonial literature Problems with the definition due to: - imprecision and lack of historical and material particularity - Difficult identification and relationship between colonizers and colonies - Troublesome and broad use of the term 6

Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia 04/01/2018 How it developed itself In response to colonial domination, from the first point of colonial contact to the present postcolonial used to determine a position against imperialism and Eurocentrism Imperialism: the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires Eurocentrism: the practise of placing emphasis on European concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures

7 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia 04/01/2018 Major issues Identity: it can be legal, social, cultural, sexual and artistic Writers write of characters in search for their personal identity and historical roots 8 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia 04/01/2018

Major issues Hybridity: it refers to the integration of cultural signs and practises from the colonizing and the colonized cultures It deals with the assimilation and adaptation of cultural practises and the cross-fertilization of cultures It can be political, social, linguistic, religious 9 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia 04/01/2018 Major issues

Culture and tradition Belief and religion: coexistance of Animism with monotheism and tribal beliefs Language: creation of new Englishes Location and sense of displacement 10 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia 04/01/2018 The literature(s) of the colonized It is based around the concept of otherness: 1. Otherness includes both identity and difference

2. Real difference between the Western and the Eastern world 3. Colonized people are highly diverse in their nature and traditions 4. They gradually transform themselves through time 11 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia 04/01/2018 The literature(s) of the colonized: National or cultural literature helps to reconstitute the identity of the colonized people, but there are many difficulties owing to: No tradition at all or literature influenced by Western one Problem of adopting language (English or local languages?)

- A hybrid national literature Different style and narrative strategies: magic realism Prevailing use of the English language 12 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia 04/01/2018 Main postcolonial writers

Edward Said Homi Bhabha Frantz Fanon Gayatri Spivak Chinua Achebe

Wole Soyinka Salman Rushdie Jamaica Kincaid Buchi Emecheta Edward Said Salman Rushdie Gayatri Spivak Jamaica Kincaid Homi Bhabha Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia

13 04/01/2018 The literature(s) of the colonists: Their ideology implied the Anglo-European culture as the most civilized, sophisticated, or metropolitan. Based on the colonizers assumption of their own superiority Colonists had to adapt to the new realities traditions and developed a hybrid literature as well, with the use of myths, symbols and definitions of different traditions 14 04/01/2018

Main postcolonial writers (colonizers) - Rudyard Kipling - Joseph Conrad - Alan Paton Joseph Conrad Rudyard Kipling 15 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia

04/01/2018 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 16 Dibarbora Mattia, Digiusto Mattia 04/01/2018

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