Preventing Violence at the Workplace

OSHA Update Doug Fletcher, CIH, CSP Fletcher Safety Consulting, Inc. Fletcher Safety Solutions, Inc. (coming in 2018) [email protected] Update Report to OSHA Fatalities report within 8 hours Hospitalizations report within 24 hours Amputations report within 24 hours Loss of eye report within 24 hours

RRI triage; inspect or Electronic reporting 250 or greater (300A), 20 249, if high hazard industry (300A), Currently online and accepting data.12/1/2017 New Silica rule 9/23/17 (30 day grace period over) Silica in G.I. 6/23/18 2 Workplace Violence The Backstory. School:

Hard sciences; chemistry, biology, physics Soft sciences; psychology, sociology OSHA: Hard safety; machine guarding, electrical safety, LOTO Soft safety; ergonomics, WPV Historically, the difference for OSHA: Inspect; machine guarding, electrical safety, LOTO (proactive) Investigate; ergonomics, WPV (reactive) Hard & soft are becoming indistinguishable Neuroscience; psychology & molecular biology

OSHA can no longer ignore the soft safety WPV Statistics 2010: 17% of 4,609 workplace fatalities were violent acts (784) 20 workers/week are murdered 18,000/year assaulted

2 million U.S. workers per year report being victims of some kind of workplace violence. 2012 SHRM Workplace Violence Survey, found that over 1/3rd of organizations reported incidents of WPV. The Iceberg (Walmart Shooting in Colorado)

1 Death 51, 000 rapes 84,000 robberies 396,000 aggravated assaults 1.5 million non-aggravated assaults 6.0 million threats or intimidations Heinrichs Triangle

1 Disabling Injury or Fatality 29 Serious Injuries 300 Minor Injuries or Near Misses Substandard Practices/Conditions Near Misses? SIFs 21% of near misses would have

resulted in Serious Injuries or Fatalities? Of the ~ 6 million threats how many of those would have the potential to result in serious outcomes? Safety Severity Pyramid 21% of Lower Level Incidents could have been SIFs Fatalities Serious Injuries OSHA Recordable & First

Aid Injuries 21% Near-Misses & Property Damage Hazards Source: Dekra Insight, 2015 2013 National Safety Survey 1,000 EHS Professionals Polled about all facets of workplace EHS

20% reported witnessing or been directly impacted by WPV. 25% reported being bullied or witnessing bullying. Any examples? Haven House attacked by residents USPS attacked by dogs White Water Saloon attacked by patrons OSHA is not immune. Assaults to CSHOs Dog incident Pitchfork incident Gun cleaning incident Screaming, throwing, spitting incidents..

CSHO to CSHO violence Female CSHOs verbally abused INS investigation Classification of Perpetrators Type Relationship % Workplace Homicides Criminal Intent

No legitimate relationship to business or employees. Ex. robbery, trespassing 85% Customer or Client Legitimate relationship with business. Ex. police officers, teachers, patient caregivers

3% Worker-on-Worker Employee or past employee in the workplace 7% Personal Relationship No relationship with business

but personal relationship with intended victim who is employee. Ex. Domestic violence 5% Source: NIOSH Workplace Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs; 2004 NEP: Workplace Violence Workplace violence (WPV) is a recognized hazard in nursing and residential care facilities. In 2010, BLS data reported approximately 2,130 assaults by

persons in nursing and residential care facilities. Is considered a recognized hazard by OSHA INSPECTIONS WILL INCLUDE: Investigation of incidents related to workplace violence CPL 02-01-052: Enforcement Procedures for Investigating or Inspecting Workplace Violence Incidents Management Involvement Worksite Analysis

Hazard Prevention and Control Employee Involvement NEP High Risk Industries Healthcare Social Services ESU#3

Late Night Retail Taxis Uber Lyft Utility workers Phone/cable installers Letter carriers Designing Your Program 1. 2. 3. 4.

Buy-in from top management is critical; Program must be based on your type of workplace and risk profile; All levels of organization should be involved in initial hazard assessment and involved in training; Conduct a systematic workplace risk assessment: A. B. C. D. E. 5.

Interaction with public? What are the various interface areas and sources of risk? Internal sources of stress among co-workers? Between managers and workers? Physical layout of facility: What and where are the vulnerable areas? What has been your history of WPV and the history of comparable organizations? Is there a history or accepted pattern of verbal communication that may qualify as workplace violence? Search the Web for supplemental sources, e.g OSHA, NIOSH, CDS sites

OSHA 5(a)1s for WPV 2017 11 2016 18 employers are required to provide their employees with a place of employment that is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious harm." Pavement Treatments, Inc. OSH ACT of 1970 Section (5)(a)(1): The employer did not furnish employment and a place of employment which were free from workplace violence hazards that

were likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees in that employees on the grind and overlay crew were exposed to escalating conflict among crew members characterized by malicious physical contact, malicious verbal threats, and actions perceived as intentional and a serious threat to personal safety. Preventing Violence at the Workplace What Is Workplace Violence? (Note the subjective nature of 2--4) 1. Physical Assault 2. Threatening Behavior

3. Verbal Abuse 4. Harassment True or False: Violence is the leading cause of death on the job. False! The leading cause of death on the job is vehicle accidents. Violence is the SECOND leading cause True or False: Homicide is the leading cause of death for women

in the workplace. TRUE! True or False: Disputes between workers and supervisors are the main motive for workplace homicides. False. Robberies account for the majority of workplace homicides. How many workers are murdered on the job each year in the U.S? According to the U.S. Department of Labor

in 2010 there were 4,609 fatalities at the workplace, 783 were due to violent acts. How many people are victims of non-fatal assaults on the job each year? 2,000,000 workers are victims each year in the U.S. A Risk Factor Is: Any condition that may increase a workers risk for violence.

What Are Some Examples of Risk Factors on Your External Risk Factors Include: 1. Working alone or in small numbers 2. Working late night/early morning 3. Working with money 4. Delivering passengers, goods or services

5. Having a mobile workplace like a taxicab or police car 6. Working in high crime areas 7. Guarding property or possessions 8. Contact with the public Internal Risk Factors Include: 1. Highly competitive sectors

with intense workloads, e.g. food processing 2. Restructuring of an organization, e.g. impending layoffs 3. Ignoring warning signs from certain individuals who have a gripe with co-workers or management 4. Allowing an ongoing feud between co-workers to go unaddressed by management

5. Chronic verbal abuse by a supervisor towards workers 6. Denial on the part of management regarding employee tension or favoritism towards one party 7. Old school mentality by management that tolerates and enables supervisor abuse How Can Violence Be

Prevented on the Job? Prevention Strategies (External Risk) 1. Dont work alone late at night or early morning 2. Call for a security escort if working late 3. Carry a cellular phone 4. Redesign workspace to prevent entrapment 5. Train staff in ways to diffuse violence.

6. Place curved mirrors at hallway intersections 7. Maintain good lighting indoors and outdoors 8. Prepare plan for consumers who act out 9. Control access to employee work areas. Prevention Strategies (Internal Risk) 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. Risk Assessment: Confidential survey of all employees designed to uncover internal risk factors, coupled with analysis of external risk factors Presentation of overall risk analysis to top management, along with supporting facts WPV training for all levels of organization Sensitivity training for high-risk employees as necessary Follow-up survey of employees to gauge impact of training

Responding to a Violent Incident 1. Isolate/secure the work area 2. Call 9-1-1 if an emergency 3. Seek medical attention for victims 4. Report the incident to your supervisor 5. Report the incident to your shop steward

6. File an incident report 7. If psychological trauma occurs call EAP for postincident debriefing 8. Give a referral to EAP to the victim Five Warning Signs of Escalating Behavior 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. Confusion Frustration Blame Anger Hostility Warning Signs of Confusion The person appears bewildered or distracted.

They are unsure or uncertain of the next course of action. Responses to Confusion 1. Listen Attentively to the person 2. Ask clarifying questions 3. Give factual Information

Warning Signs of Frustration 1. The person is impatient and reactive 2. The person resists information you are giving them 3. The person may try to bait you Responses to Frustration 1. Move the person to a quiet location

2. Reassure them, talk to them in a calm voice 3. Attempt to clarify their concerns Warning Signs of Blame 1. The person places responsibility on everyone else 2. They may accuse you or hold you responsible

3. They may find fault with others 4. They may place blame on you Responses to Blame 1. Disengage with the person and bring a second party into the discussion 2. Use a teamwork approach 3. Draw the person

back to the facts 4. Show respect and concern 5. Focus on areas of agreement to help resolve the situation Warning Signs of Anger 1. The person may show a visible change in body posture 2. Actions may include pounding fists,

pointing fingers, shouting or screaming 3. This signals VERY RISKY BEHAVIOR! Responses to Anger 1. Dont argue with the person 2. Dont offer solutions 3. Prepare to evacuate the area or isolate the person 4. Contact your

supervisor and security personnel Warning Signs of Hostility 1. Physical actions or threats appear imminent 2. There is immediate danger of physical harm or property damage 3. Out-of-control behavior signals the

person has crossed the line Responses to Hostility 1. Disengage with the person and evacuate the area 2. Attempt to isolate the person if it can be done safely 3. Alert your supervisor and contact security immediately

What is a potential WPV scenario for your organization and how might you respond proactively? 1. Von Mauer 2. Millard South High School 3. Nebraska Corrections Dept. What else? Silica Competent Person Training Omaha 11/14/17 Lincoln 11/28/17

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