Prevention of Type 2 DM after GDM Thomas Galliford Consultant Physician and Endocrinologist West Herts Hospitals NHS Trust Prevention of Type 2 DM after GDM 1. Diabetes in pregnancy 2. Gestational diabetes mellitus Diagnosis Management Complications 3. Risk of developing type 2 diabetes 4. Prevention of type 2 diabetes Pre-diabetes Screening
Future Pregnancy and diabetes Approx 650,000 pregnancies in UK/yr 2-5% involve mothers with diabetes GDM / type 1 diabetes / type 2 diabetes (87.5% / 7.5% / 5%) Prevalence Total singleton pregnancies Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Gestational diabetes Total diabetes in pregnancy
Number of pregnancies in England 600,200 0.3% 0.2% 3.5% 1,800 1,200 20,400 23,400 www.nice.org.uk
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Definition Any impairment of glucose tolerance first recognised in pregnancy Risk factors pre-pregnancy body mass index above 30 kg/m2 previous gestational diabetes family history of diabetes (first-degree relative with diabetes) previous macrosomic baby weighing 4.5 kg family origin with a high prevalence of diabetes 70% will need oral agents +/or insulin GDM latest guidance New NICE guidance based on QALYs If willing to pay 20,000 per QALY (no Rx)
If willing to pay 30,000 per QALY most cost effective WHO 1999: LABORATORY PLASMA GLUCOSE (mmol/L) Fasting 2 hour GDM 5.6 7.8 Normal
< 5.6 < 7.8 Screening for GDM Plasma glucose (fasting or non-fasting) Raised fasting or random BG 75g OGTT Note of risk factors for GDM Any x 1 booked for 75g OGTT at 24-28 weeks Random BG 11mmol/L = GDM No need for OGTT Previous GDM Offer home CBG testing OR OGTT approx 16/40
Treatment of diabetes in pregnancy Frequent SMBG, 4-7 times daily See every 2 4 weeks Dietician review Weights TIME BG (mmol/L) Fasting
ACHOIS study NEJM 2005; 352(24): 2477 - 2486 Prospective interventional study to examine whether screening and treatment to reduce maternal glucose levels reduce pregnancy risk Methods: OGTT 24 34 weeks (WHO definition for GDM, if +ve blinded and randomized) Dietary advice, monitoring and treatment to achieve normoglycaemia vs. no treatment unless attending team felt appropriate on the basis of indications that arose Primary outcomes infants serious perinatal complications Primary outcomes mothers IOL, c-section Results:
490 (Rx group) vs. 510 (no Rx group) women Relative risk of serious perinatal complications 1% vs 4% (adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, parity) IOL: 39% vs. 29% C-section rates similar HAPO Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes NEJM 2008; 358(19): 1991-2002 25000 patients from 15 centres 75g OGTT at 24-32/40 1o outcomes:
Dystocia/birth injury Need for NICU Hyperbilirubinaemia PET HAPO Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes NEJM 2008; 358(19): 1991-2002 25000 patients from 15 centres 75g OGTT at 24-32/40 1o outcomes:
Premature delivery Dystocia/birth injury Need for NICU Hyperbilirubinaemia PET 1.00 1.05 1.18 0.99 1.21
Risk of developing type 2 diabetes Depends what paper you read! Old studies Variable ethnicity Different diagnostic criteria What is useful? Incidence of type 2 diabetes following GDM Predictors of type 2 diabetes following GDM What is the risk for women with GDM? Systemic reviews Meta-analysis education and intensive screening of these groups prevention
Gestational Diabetes and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 1862 1868 PubMed search 1965 2001 28 studies Culmulative incidence of diabetes ranged from 2.6% to > 70% (6 wks post-partum to 28 years) Longest study: Boston Mass = 50% after 6 yrs, 70% after 28 yrs Women from mixed or non-white cohorts progress to type 2 diabetes at similar rates Whites and non-whites appear to progress to type 2 diabetes at similar rates (however fewer studies in white cohort) Progression greatest in first 5 years post-partum Predictors of Postpartum Diabetes in Women
with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes 2006; 55: 792 797 Prospective study from Germany recruiting between 1989 1999 302 patients 53% culmulative 8yr progression to type 2 diabetes Risks: autoAbs (HR 4.1) Requirement of insulin during pregnancy (HR 4.7)
BMI > 30 (HR 1.5) Women with more than two prior pregnancies (HR 2.5) No association: FHx Maternal age Childs birth weight CRP at 9 months Type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational
diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis Lancet 2009; 373(9677): 1773-9 Identified cohort studies between 1960 and 2009 20 studies selected including 675455 women Calculated unadjusted relative risks Sub-group analysis incl. ethnicity, maternal age, BMI Increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with those who had a normoglycaemic pregnancy relative risk 7.43 there is no reference to the power that the term gestational diabetes has to transform a happy pregnant woman into an anxious or depressed one 44 page Guide to Gestational Diabetes After having gestational diabetes, you are at
an increased risk of developing the condition in future pregnancies, and youre also more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes later on. Dietary advice when pregnant weight gain varies greatly during pregnancy most women gain between 10kg and 12.5kg (22-26lb) a healthy diet is an important part of a healthy lifestyle at any time you dont need a special diet you will probably find that you are hungrier than usual but you dont need to eat for two even if you are having twins you need to be careful with your diet if you develop gestational diabetes, your Doctor or Midwife will advise you NICE: Public health guideline [PH27] July 2010 Do not weigh
women repeatedly during pregnancy as a matter of routine Prevention of type 2 DM after GDM No intervention trial to date except one that examined troglitazone that was subsequently discontinued because of hepatotoxicity in other populations Complications in discontinuity of care Loss to any follow-up post delivery Maternal underestimates of risk Difficulties in continued implementation of exercise and diet Pre-diabetes Synonyms IFG, IGT, borderline diabetes
Not recognised by the WHO ADA HbA1c 5.7% / 39mmol/mol Simply put means that blood glucose levels higher than normal and at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes Are we screening this cohort? How do we improve screening uptake? Screening for type 2 diabetes in mothers with previous GDM Main NPID outcomes Growing proportion of pregnancies in women with T2 DM 44.9% vs. CEMACH 27.3% Proportion of mothers with type 2 diabetes up by 60% Post-natal screening No 6 week OGTT
Fasting glucose Annual HbA1c and/or fasting glucose DIAMIND trial Diabet Med 2015; 32(10):136876 Randomized controlled trial assessing whether an SMS reminder system for women, after GDM, would increase their attendance for OGTT by 6 months Subjects: GDM in recent pregnancy Mobile phone normal glucose prior to discharge n = 140 sent SMS at 6/52, 3/12, 6/12 vs. n = 136 sent x1 SMS at 6/12 Results: SMS group = 104 vs. control 103
Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin - DPPR Group. NEJM 2002; 346(6): 393-403 Methods 3234 persons without diabetes (50% from ethnic minorities) Elevated fasting and post-prandial glucose concentrations BMI > 24 Placebo vs. metformin (850mg tds) vs. intensive lifestyle modification Aim 7% weight loss 150 minutes of physical activity/wk 16 lesson curriculum covering diet, exercise and behaviour modification; 1 to 1 basis in first 24wks and subsequent individual monthly sessions and group sessions
Primary Outcome Diabetes diagnosed on annual OGTT or semi-annual fasting glucose DPPR Results DPPR - Results High rates of diabetes Lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence of diabetes by 58% Metformin reduced the incidence of diabetes by 31%
To prevent one case of DM in 3 years: - 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle intervention program - 13.9 would have to receive metformin Results the same regardless of ethnicity, BMI, age The future - big decisions to be made NHS England Diabetes Prevention Strategy Public Health policy Childhood obesity strategy Governmental role Childhood obesity strategy???? Advertising restrictions Some supermarket promotions banned Extension of sugar tax
School role re: exercise Prevention of type 2 diabetes study in mothers with GDM! Summary 1. Diabetes in pregnancy 2. Gestational diabetes mellitus Diagnosis Management Complications 3. Risk of developing type 2 diabetes 4. Prevention of type 2 diabetes Pre-diabetes Screening Future
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