Primate Evolution (65 - 5 mya)

Primate Evolution (65 - 5 mya)

Inside the shell of the amniotic egg are several extraembryonic membranes that function in gas exchange, waste storage, and the transfer of stored nutrients to the embryo. These develop from tissues layers that

grow out from the embryo. Fig. 34.19 Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Reptile Adaptations for Terrestrial Life Amniotic egg (leathery). Scales containing the protein keratin waterproof the skin. Reptiles obtain all their oxygen with lungs; no cutaneous respiration unlike amphibians.

Evolution of Mammals Dinosaurs became extinct at the CretaceousTertiary (K-T)boundary ~ 65 mya (end of Mesozoic). Mammalian evolution began over 220 mya from reptilian stock the therapsids. Remained small, and out of the lime light

until dinosaurs became extinct. Extensive diversification in Cenozoic. Extant mammals - ~ 4,500 species. The Evolution of Primates Early Cenozoic Primates

The earliest primates date to the first part of the Cenozoic (65-54 m.y.a.). The Eocene (54-38 m.y.a.) was the epoch of prosimians with at least 60 different genera in two families. The omomyid family lived in North America, Europe, and Asia and may be ancestral to all anthropoids. The adapid family was ancestral to the lemur-loris line.

Omomyid An artists reconstruction of Shoshonius, a member of the Eocene omomyid family.

Aegyptopithecus - lived about 33 MYA (million years ago) in Egypt - sometimes called the Dawn Ape - arboreal, probably ate fruit - link between earlier primates and apes

Dryopithecus Dryopithecus lived in Europe during the middle and late Miocene. This group probably includes the common ancestor of the lesser apes (gibbons and siamangs) and the great apes.

Dryopithecus has the Y-5 arrangement of molar cusps typical of Dryopithecus and of hominoids. Primate Classification Primates are divided into two main Suborders:

1. Prosimians: Lemurs, Lorises,Tarsiers 2. Anthropoids: NW & OW Monkeys, Apes, Humans

Prosimians a. Fat-tailed galago (mainland Africa) b. Ruffed lemur (Madagascar) c. Sifaka (Madagascar) d. Ring-tailed lemur

(Madagascar) e. Mouse lemur (Madagascar) f. Slow loris (South Asia) g. Aye-aye (Islands off Madagascar)

Anthropoids a. b. c. d. e.

f. g. Spider monkey (NW monkey) Saki monkey (NW monkey)

Drill (OW terrestrial monkey) Tamarin (NW marmoset) Colobus (OW arboreal monkey) Gibbon (OW lesser

ape) Gorilla (OW great ape) Lemurs, Tarsiers, Aye-Ayes, Lori Lemurs

Tarsier Aye-Aye The aye-aye shown here lives on the island of Madagascar. It is a very

specialized insect-eater. Large eyes & good climbing abilities. The aye-aye, and most other prosimians, differ from monkeys and apes in having a moist area of skin on the nose.

Lori Platyrrhine Monkeys Platyrrhines Flat noses Nostrils point

sideways Many have prehensile tails Live in South and Central America

Platyrrhine Monkeys: Tamarins Platyrrhine Monkeys: Capuchin Monkey

Prehensile Tail Catarrhine Monkeys Downwardpointing nostrils Evolved and found in Africa and Asia

Catarrhines Divided into two Superfamilies: 1. Old World Monkeys 2. Hominoids

Lack tails, have larger skulls, & walk partially upright Include Gibbons, Gorillas, Orangutans, Humans, & Chimpanzees Catarrhine Monkeys:

Mandrill and Diana Terrestrial Old World Monkeys: Baboon Lesser Ape: Gibbon

Great Ape: Orangutan Great Ape: Gorilla Great Ape: Chimpanzee Locomotion forms

Brachiation Bipedalism Knuckle walking Laetoli, Tanzania, c. 3.5 3.8 million years ago

Primate Characteristics: Summary Large brains 3-D vision, Reduced Sense of Smell Flexible shoulder joints, Vertical

Positioning of Trunk Hands and feet with five digits Grasping thumb Primate Characteristics: Summary (cont.) Flat fingernails instead of claws

Generalized dentition Extended Gestation and Maturation Strong Maternal-Offspring Bond High Degree of Socialization

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