Inside the shell of the amniotic egg are several extraembryonic membranes that function in gas exchange, waste storage, and the transfer of stored nutrients to the embryo. These develop from tissues layers that
grow out from the embryo. Fig. 34.19 Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Reptile Adaptations for Terrestrial Life Amniotic egg (leathery). Scales containing the protein keratin waterproof the skin. Reptiles obtain all their oxygen with lungs; no cutaneous respiration unlike amphibians.
Evolution of Mammals Dinosaurs became extinct at the CretaceousTertiary (K-T)boundary ~ 65 mya (end of Mesozoic). Mammalian evolution began over 220 mya from reptilian stock the therapsids. Remained small, and out of the lime light
until dinosaurs became extinct. Extensive diversification in Cenozoic. Extant mammals - ~ 4,500 species. The Evolution of Primates Early Cenozoic Primates
The earliest primates date to the first part of the Cenozoic (65-54 m.y.a.). The Eocene (54-38 m.y.a.) was the epoch of prosimians with at least 60 different genera in two families. The omomyid family lived in North America, Europe, and Asia and may be ancestral to all anthropoids. The adapid family was ancestral to the lemur-loris line.
Omomyid An artists reconstruction of Shoshonius, a member of the Eocene omomyid family.
Aegyptopithecus - lived about 33 MYA (million years ago) in Egypt - sometimes called the Dawn Ape - arboreal, probably ate fruit - link between earlier primates and apes
Dryopithecus Dryopithecus lived in Europe during the middle and late Miocene. This group probably includes the common ancestor of the lesser apes (gibbons and siamangs) and the great apes.
Dryopithecus has the Y-5 arrangement of molar cusps typical of Dryopithecus and of hominoids. Primate Classification Primates are divided into two main Suborders:
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