Principals of General Zoology (Zoo-103)

Principals of General Zoology (Zoo-103)

Zoo-352 Principles of genetics Lecture 5 Meiosis Overview of meiosis In the sexual reproduction process, two gametes fuse during fertilization to produce a zygote. Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division which reduces the chromosome number by half. This process occurs in animals and plants.

Meiosis occurs only in germ cells. Mitosis can occur in either haploid or diploid cells, but meiosis is restricted to diploid cells. Meiosis takes place solely in the testes (males) and ovaries (females) to produce haploid sex cells or gametes. Meiosis is a two division process that produces four haploid cells from each diploid parental cell. These two divisions are known as meiosis I (a reductional division) and meiosis II (an equational The first meiotic division, meiosis I

Meiosis I is divided into four phases: prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I. Prior to meiosis, chromosome duplication occurs during the S of the interphase stage in order to double the sister chromatid pairs. Prophase I can be sub-classified into five stages: leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis. The stages of prophase I 1) Leptotene: The duplicated sister chromatids start to condense and coil,

2) Zygotene: The homologous chromosomes draw close to each other by a special structure celled the synaptonemal complex, which begins to form between paired homologous chromosomes in a process termed synapsis. Four chromatids, with one chromosome coming from each parent.

Each pair of homologous chromosomes is known as a bivalent (Tetrad). 3) Pachytene: Synapsis is complete and the paired chromosomes are held together tightly with the aid of the synaptonemal complex and structures termed chiasma (plural: chiasmata). Crossing over between homologous Leptotene stage

Zygotene stage Pachytene stage Diplotene stage Diakinesis The stages of prophase I

4) Diplotene: The homologous chromosomes begin to separate in a process called desynapsis, but remain connected through sister chromatid cohesion and chiasmata until anaphase I. 5) Diakinesis: The synaptonemal complex has completely dissociated, the chromosomes continue to condense further and the nuclear membrane breaks down. Crossing over in a tetrad during prophase of meiosis I

The phases of Meiosis I 2- Metaphase I Sister chromatids are attached to kinetochore microtubules from the same centrosome or pole. The tetrads are aligned in a double row along the metaphase plate The phases of Meiosis I

3- Anaphase I The chiasmata between homologous chromosomes are separated. Sister chromatid cohesion along the chromosome arms is resolved, but the sister chromatids remain bound to each other at the centromeres until the beginning of anaphase II. The phases of Meiosis I 4- Telophase I

The nuclear membrane reforms around the chromosomes and cytokinesis takes place. The second meiotic division, meiosis II Meiosis II is basically a mitotic-like division. It is called the equational division because the chromosome number remains the same in each cell before and after the second division. Meiosis II does not further reduce the chromosome number. Meiosis II reduces the amount of genetic material per cell by half through separation of the sister chromatids.

It is shorter than meiosis I, although it consists of four phases: prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II. It occurs without further DNA replication. Comparison between mitosis and meiosis Significance of meiosis 1) Meiosis produces haploid gamete required for sexual reproduction from diploid cells.

2) It reduces the diploid number of chromosomes by half. 3) Meiosis produces genetic diversity. Videos http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/007298760x/student_view0/chapter3/ stages_of_meiosis.html http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/007298760x/student_view0/chapter3/ meiosis_with_crossing_over.html http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/007298760x/student_view0/chapter3/ unique_features_of_meiosis.html

http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/007298760x/student_view0/chapter3/ how_meiosis_works.html http://highered.mheducation.com/novella/MixQuizProcessingServlet http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/007298760x/student_view0/chapter3/ comparison_of_meiosis_and_mitosis__quiz_1_.html

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