l a W n o i t c ru t s n o Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Copyright Notice The materials are copyrighted and trademarked as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of TEA, except under the following conditions: 1.
2. 3. 4. Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts and schools educational use without obtaining permission from TEA. Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only without obtaining written permission of TEA. Any portion reproduced must be reproduced in its entirety and remain unedited, unaltered and unchanged in any way. No monetary charge can be made for the reproduced materials or any document containing them; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged. Private entities or persons located in Texas that are not Texas public school districts, Texas Education Service Centers, or Texas charter schools or any entity, whether public or private, educational or non-educational, located outside the state of Texas MUST obtain written
approval from TEA and will be required to enter into a license agreement that may involve the payment of a licensing fee or a royalty. For information contact: Office of Copyrights, Trademarks, License Agreements, and Royalties, Texas Education Agency, 1701 N. Congress Ave., Austin, TX 78701-1494; phone Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. 512-463-9270 or 512-463-9713; email: [email protected] 2 Wall s 3 One of the most basic building elements of a
house is the wall. The wall is the main structural element that holds up, protects, and identifies the house. A wall is part of the skeleton of a house. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Trad ition Con al stru ction 4 The building of a wall structure goes back in time, but we will focus on the most current and
typical method for wall construction. Using lumber framing members for our construction materials, lets look at the inside of a wall. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Wall Term inolo gy 5 The terms discussed are some of the common terms used in construction. There are many other terms, nicknames, and
designations given to construction materials. Some of the terms may come from a specific manufacturer or region. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Wall Term inolo gy 6 The basic framing member of a wall is the stud. This usually is a 2 x 4 - a 2 x 4 piece of precut and usually pretreated wood Even though it is
designated as a 2 x 4, this is just the nominal size. The actual size is 11/2 x 3-1/2. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Wall Stud s 7 Studs are used in many ways for framing a house. The most common is the main vertical member for just a common wall, but we also have King and Jack studs. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. King and
Jack Stud s 8 King studs are used at an opening in the wall, such as a door or window opening. Jack studs are used in conjunction with a King stud to help support the header at an opening in the wall. These are also known as a Trimmer stud. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Tope and Sole
Plate s 9 The Top Plate and Sole Plate create the enclosing parts of a wall. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Tope and Plate Sole s, C o ntin ued 10 The top plate will cap off the wall. It will act as
a support and member for placing ceiling joists or roof rafters. This is usually a double 2x4 framing member. The sole plate is used as a base and layout template for the wall. It will also act as an anchor to the foundation. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Crip ple, H ea der, an d Sill 11
Some other important members are the Cripple, Header ,and Sill. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Crip ple, H ea der, Sill, an d Con tinu ed 12 A cripple is studs that are not full length due to an opening in a wall. A header is a horizontal
beam placed over an opening onto studs for support. A sill is a horizontal framing member used under an opening such as a window. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Dimensions are sizes and measurements. Dim ensi ons 13 Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Dim ensi
ons and O.C. 14 Dimensions give the exact sizes or measurements for certain elements of construction. The dimensions usually follow a certain format throughout the whole project. They can be given in feet, metric, or other units of measure. O.C. is an abbreviation for On Center - this means that you measure from the center of one stud to the center of the next stud.
Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Wor k Tim e! 15 Lets apply your new knowledge and work on your own wall. Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.
= 291.4 torr. 291.4 torr. 1 atm. 760 torr = 0.3834 atm. 0.3834 atm. 101.325 kPa. 1 atm = 38.85 kPa. The relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas. Boyle's Law. The relationship between the volume and temperature...
Female students comprise almost 50 % of the total number .. Bound to affect their status positively in the years to come .. Females can drive in Kuwait (unlike Saudi Arabia)… and students turn up for classes in the finest...
Al. 2 O 3 /bases (CaO+MgO+K 2 O+Na 2. O) increases through time Notable steps that define the solid lines . ... The variation between litho- and chemostratigraphic correlation are potentially vitally important for building reservoir models in the Mungaroo...
[email protected] Core Team and Collaborators East-West Center: Melissa Finucane, Nancy Lewis University of Hawaii: Cheryl Anderson, Social Science Research Institute Kevin Hamilton, International Pacific Research Center Aly El-Kadi, Water Resource Research Center Maxine Burkett, Center for Island Climate Adaptation and...
Za datę początkową tej epoki uznaje się rok 473, obalenie Romulusa, ostatniego cesarza zachodniorzymskiego, przez Okadora. Jeżeli chodzi o granicę końcową przyjąć można rok 1450 - wynalazek druku, 1453 - upadek Konstantynopola lub 1492 - odkrycie Ameryki przez Krzysztofa Kolumba.
(TQA : Organizational Excellence Model) ... Good Organization Great Organization Visionary Leadership Customer-Focused Excellence Organizational & Personal Learning Valuing Staff & Partners Agility Focus on the Future Managing for Innovation Management by Fact Social Responsibility and Community ...
Results: Static localization Result: Excellent accuracy over the entire building Results: Static localization II Experiment: Use only N scans/cell for training Result: Gaussian needs a lot less training data This is in addition to gains from topology model Problem: Untrained...
I can write percents as decimals and fraction. Vocabulary. Percent: Is a ratio that compares a number to 100. The symbol for percent is: % Modeling Activity. On your graph paper make a border to form a 10 x 10...
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