Background to Supply Costs, Revenue and Profit 17th of December Costs, revenue and profit Topics to be covered: The meaning of cost Production in the short-run: the law of diminishing returns Short-run production function Costs in the short-run Production in the long run Relationship between sales revenue and output Revenue, output and revenue Elasticity and revenue Profit maximisation short-run long-run Shut-down point Meaning of Cost Cost is the money spent by a firm to produce goods or services Example: labour cost, material cost, machinery cost Opportunity costs
Often cost is measured in terms of opportunity cost Opportunity cost is the cost of any activity measured in terms of the next best alternative (opportunity) foregone. Example: producing 10 small cars instead of 6 large cars with same amount of input (opportunity cost of producing 1 small car is 0.6 of a large car). Measuring opportunity cost Measuring opportunity cost: What factors of production the firm uses Cost (sacrifice) involved in using them Explicit cost and implicit cost Explicit costs: Costs involved with the production of goods or services that require a direct payment of money to a third party, e.g., electricity bill, labour cost. Implicit costs: Costs which do not involve a direct payment of money to a third party, but nevertheless involve a sacrifice of some alternative e.g., cost of machinery, building etc. not owned by the firm. 35 30 25 10 Profit 20 20
Implicit Cost 15 10 30 Explicit Cost 10 5 10 10 0 Economic Profit Total Revenue Accounting Profit Measuring opportunity cost Measuring opportunity cost: If there is no alternative use of an input and if it has not scrap value, the opportunity cost of using it is zero. Costs not considered as opportunity cost:
Historic costs original purchase price of an asset Fixed costs not important in short-run decision making (referred to as sunk cost). Bygones principle: the sunk (fixed) costs should be ignored when deciding whether to produce or sell more or less of a product. Only variable cost should be considered. Replacement cost ( something needs to pay in the future) Production in the Short run Production functions factors of production labour land and raw materials capital entrepreneurship the cost of producing any level of output will depend on the amounts of inputs used and the price that the firm pay for them. Production in the Short run Short-run : short-run is a time period during which the cost of at least one factor of production is fixed. Long-run: all costs are variable The actual length of short-run will differ from firm to firm. It is not a fixed period of time. The law of diminishing return: decrease in marginal production as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased.
The short-run production function Production function: relationship between input and output Total physical product (TPP): total output produced in a given period of time. Average physical product (APP): output per unit of variable factor marginal physical product (MPP): extra output produced by employing one more variable factor the graphical relationship between TPP, APP and MPP Wheat production per year from a particular farm Number of workers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Tonnes of wheat produced per year 40 30 20
7 8 MPP Number of farm workers (L) Q If the marginal physical product (MPP) is above the average physical product (APP): A. the MPP must be falling. B. the MPP must be rising. C. the APP must be falling. D. the APP must be rising. E. the APP could be either rising or falling depending on whether the MPP is rising or falling.
Costs in the Short run Fixed costs and variable costs Total costs total fixed cost (TFC): total fixed cost does not vary with output. total variable cost (TVC) Variable cost per unit of output X Number output produced total cost (TC = TFC + TVC) 100 80 60 Output (Q) TFC () TVC () TC () 0 1 2 3
31 7 12 1.7 91 13 103 14.7 Average and marginal costs MC AC Costs () AVC z y x AFC Output (Q) Production in the Long run
All factors are variable in long run Planning in the long-run involves decisions on : Scale of its production o economies of scale when increasing the scale of production leads to lower cost per unit of output. constant returns to scale: percentage increase in input will lead to the same percentage increase in output. increasing returns to scale: output grows at a higher rate than the growth in input decreasing returns to scale: Output grows at a lower rate. Costs Alternative long-run average cost curves O Constant costs LRAC Output A typical long-run average cost curve Costs LRAC O Output
Costs A typical long-run average cost curve O Economies of scale Constant costs Output Diseconomies of scale LRAC Deriving long-run average cost curves: factories of fixed size Costs SRAC1 1 factory O SRAC2 SRAC3
SRAC4 SRAC5 5 factories 2 factories 3 factories Output 4 factories Deriving long-run average cost curves: factories of fixed size SRAC1 SRAC2 SRAC3 SRAC4 SRAC5 Costs LRAC O Output
Costs Deriving a long-run average cost curve: choice of factory size Examples of short-run average cost curves O Output Deriving a long-run average cost curve: choice of factory size Costs LRAC O Output Exam Questions The costs that are influenced by output in the short run are Select one: A. total fixed costs only. B. total costs only. C. total variable costs only. D. both total variable costs and total costs. E. Start up costs Question 2
Economies of scale exist when A. doubling the amount of labour more than doubles the amount of output. B. any of the conditions under A or C occur. C. doubling the amount of capital more than doubles total output. D. increasing the scale of production leads to a lower cost per unit output. E. any of the conditions under B or C occur Question 3 If the total product of two workers is 80 and the total product of three workers is 90, then the average product of the third worker is ________ and the marginal product of the third worker is ________. Select one: A. 30; 10 B. 10; 3.33 C. 3.33; 10 D. 10; 30 E. 160; 270 Revenue Defining total, average and marginal revenue Total revenue (TR): firms total earnings from the sale of particular amount of output (Q) in a period of time. TR = Price (P) Q Average revenue(AR): average amount the firm earns per unit sold. AR = TR / Q Marginal revenue (MR): The extra revenue gained by selling one or more unit per time period. MR = TR / Q Revenue Price taker: A firm that is too small to be able to influence market price. A price taking firm faces horizontal demand curve at the market price
Average revenue curve for a single firm therefore lies along exactly the same line of its demand curve. Marginal revenue curve will be the same as the average revenue curve For a price taking firm D=AR=MR S AR, MR () Price () Deriving a firms AR and MR: price-taking firm D = AR = MR Pe D O Q (millions) (a) The market O Q (hundreds) (b) The firm
Total revenue for a price-taking firm Quantity (units) 6000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 TR () 5000 4000 3000 Price = AR = MR () 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 TR
TR () 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 2000 1000 0 0 200 400 600 Quantity 800 1000 1200 Revenue curve for price chooser Price maker (price chooser) : Firm has a relatively large share of the
market. Firm has the ability to influence the price charged for its good or service. A price maker firm faces a downward-sloping demand curve In order to sell more, it must lower the price A price rise will reduce sale What happens to AR, MR and TR? AR and MR curves for a firm facing a downward-sloping demand curve Q (units) 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 AR, MR () 6 4 P =AR ()
20 18 14 5 6 TR 0 0 1 2 3 4 Quantity 7 Marginal revenue and price elasticity of demand If demand is price elastic, a decrease in price will lead to a proportionally larger increase in quantity demanded and hence and increase in revenue; Positive marginal revenue
If demand is price inelastic, a decrease in price will lead to a proportionally smaller increase in quantity demanded and hence and decrease in revenue; Negative marginal revenue AR and MR curves for a firm facing a downward-sloping demand curve 8 Elastic Elasticity = -1 AR, MR () 6 4 Inelastic 2 AR 0 1 2
3 4 5 6 7 -2 -4 MR Quantity Shifts in revenue curve A change in any other determinants of demand, such as, tastes, income or the price of other goods, will shift the demand curve. These changes will cause shift in all three revenue curves Revenue curve shifts upward to reflect an increase in revenue and shifts downwards to reflect decrease in revenue. Cost and revenue :profit maximisation Firms strive through in maximizing profit Managers are interested to know the output level at which profit is maximized Two approaches to determine profit maximisation level of
output: Total approach = total revenue total cost Marginal approach = marginal revenue marginal cost Revenue, cost and profit for Firm X Q P = AR (u n its ) ( ) 0 9 TR ( ) MR ( ) 0 TC ( ) AC ( ) 6 8
1 8 8 7 10 14 10 6 12 18 6 5 14 20 4 2/3 4
18 20 4 1/2 3 25 18 5 2 14 2 2 1 4 1 1/3 2 1
5 1 18 3 42 6 11 36 6 4 7 2 7 2 6 4 0
5 6 2 2 4 A ( ) 2 4 3 T ( ) 4 6 2 MC ( ) 20 56 8
/2 TR, TC, TP () Finding maximum profit using total curves 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 TC d TR e f
1 2 3 4 5 6 TP 7 Quantity Profit Maximisation Using total curves maximising the difference between TR & TC the total profit curve Using marginal and average curves stage 1: profit is maximised at the quantity where MR = MC
Finding the profit-maximising output using marginal curves 16 MC Costs and revenue () 12 8 4 Profit-maximising output e 0 1 -4 2 3 4 5 6
7 MR Quantity Profit Maximisation Using total curves maximising the difference between TR & TC the total profit curve Using marginal and average curves stage 1: profit is maximised at the quantity where MR = MC stage 2: using AR and AC curves to measure the size of the profit (and the products price) Measuring the maximum profit using average curves 16 MC Total profit = 1.50 x 3 = 4.50 Costs and revenue () 12 Profits maximised at the output where MC = MR
8 6.00 4.50 AC a T TO OT TA AL L P P R O F II T T b 4 AR 0 1 -4 2 3 4
5 6 7 MR Quantity Profit Maximisation long-run profit maximisation Long-run profits will be maximised at the output where MR equals the long-run MC. Meaning of profit The minimum return that the owners must make on their capital in order to prevent close down. Normal profit: the opportunity cost of being in business Economic profit: the excess of profit over normal profit Loss-minimising output : Output where MR=MC Loss-minimising output Costs and revenue () MC AC AC
LOSS AR O AR Q Quantity Shut down or not Short-run shut-down point: In the short-run fixed costs have to be paid even if the firm is producing nothing. short-run shut-down point: P = AVC Long-run All costs are variable Firms need to cover both fixed and variable costs P = LRAC The short-run shut-down point Costs and revenue () The firm will shut down in the short run if it cannot cover variable costs. If AVC is higher or AR lower than that shown, the firm will shut down.
AC AVC P= AVC O AR Q Quantity Research! Pick any country Find the following information about the country Demographic Information Population, Nationality, Ethnic Groups, Languages, Religions Economic Information GDP, Currency and dollar exchange rate, GDP Growth rate, GDP Per capita, Unemployment rate, Inflation rate State where you got the information from.
such as the school careers section on the school website, Your GroFar careers portal, Tutor Base Information Box, Notice boards and Library. And on-line resources such as U-explore START. All online careers resources are hyperlinked on the school careers page...
The cell cycle, or cell-divisional cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication).. In cells without a nucleus (prokaryotes), the cell cycle occurs via a process termed binary fission....
2. B. Skanning: - informasi struktur tubuh manusia, mis: hati,lambung, jantung janin dll. - Utk mendeteksi kehamilan sekitar 6 mgg, kel.uterus & kasus2 perdrhan - >> memberikan informasi dr pd X-ray dan sdkt resiko yg terjadi 3. M. Skanning -...
* Background data. * Abhishek * Jason Sub7 Sinit uses random scanning to find other peers in a reasonable ip range Zeus - On 1 October 2010, FBI announced it had discovered a major international cyber crime network which had...
Arial Symbol Default Design Microsoft Equation 3.0 PowerPoint Presentation S-N Diagram Safety Factor Example Facture Mechanics Method of Fatigue Crack Growth Fatigue Life Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Crack Grow Rate Crack Growth Rate Effect of R Ratio Example Example Assignment
N doped (1018 cm-3) 6H-SiC(0001) substrate from Cree Research Graphitization in ultra-high vacuum (LEED + Auger) STM experiments at room temperature and 45K 1ML graphene P. Mallet and J.Y. Veuillen, cond-mat/0702406 STM image of the first graphene layer 0th layer...
Arterial blood gas. Arterial lactate. Complete blood count. Blood type and screen. Pregnancy test (females) Ammonia (arterial if possible) HIV status (if txp potential) Amylase and lipase *Done only if Wilson disease is a consideration . e.g., in patients less...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!