Protein Function Follows Form: Small Changes may Cause Big ...
Biochemistry Teachable Unit Junior/senior course in Biology or Biochemistry. Teachable Unit for 2 class periods. Background knowledge: general biology and general chemistry. Prior knowledge: fundamental protein structure from amino acids through quaternary structure.
Learning Goals Understand: 1. The relationship between protein structure and function A. How binding interactions can change protein structure, which may modify function B. How environmental changes can change protein structure, which may modify function
C. How mutation can change protein structure, which may modify function Desired Outcomes Students should be able to: 1. Predict magnitude of effect of specific amino acid changes on protein function (BT = 6) 2. Predict how changes in cellular environment e.g. temperature, pH, binding interactions affect
structure and function (BT = 6) 3. Collaborate with other students to solve problems 4. Analyze data about protein structure and function (BT = 5) 5. Modify protein sequence / structure for specific function/enhancement (BT = 6) Protein Function Follows Form: Small Changes may Cause Big Effects
Michelle Withers ([email protected]) A Quick Review of Protein Structure http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iaHHgEoa2c8 Some Proteins are Enzymes http://cnx.org/content/m44429/latest/
Enzyme Regulation Allosteric regulation occurs when a regulatory molecule binds somewhere other than the active site. Images courtesy of M. Withers Which line represents the enzymes reaction rate
when an allosteric regulator is added? A. B. C. Not enough information is given. Control rate (blue) A (green)
B (red) Graph adapted from one shown at: http://droualb.faculty.mjc.edu/Course%20Materials/Physiology%20101/Chapter%20Notes/Fall%202011/ chapter_3%20Fall%202011.htm Allosteric regulation of enzymes http://www.kmle.co.kr/search.php?Search=allosteric%20inhibition/
Primary Research Paper Assigned for Summative Assessment Ikeda et al. (1997) Conversion of Non-allosteric Pyruvate Kinase Isozyme into an Allosteric Enzyme by a Single Amino Acid Substitution. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 20495-20501. Students will work in groups outside class, read paper, do jigsaw activity to discuss paper, and write answers to questions as a group.
Questions from Research Paper for Summative Assessment: Questions: What technique do the investigators use to demonstrate that the new enzyme is allosterically regulated? How does Arginine substitution affect the pyruvate kinase M1 activity? Predict what would happen if the substitution were Lysine instead of Arginine?
Whats protein got to do with it? Case Study: Hemoglobin an O2 binding protein http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin-O2 binding curve http://sunburst.usd.edu/~dlswanso/ecophys/index.html Question 1: The data in the plot show the Sshaped (sigmoid) relationship between oxygen binding to hemoglobin and oxygen availability (pO2). The sigmoid oxygen binding curves allow A. high oxygen binding at low pO2
B. effective oxygen loading at the tissues and unloading at the lung C. effective oxygen loading at the lungs and unloading at the tissues D. insensitivity to oxygen availability Group Activity: Amino Acid Sorting Students will work in groups with notecards that each have an amino acid structure, with its
name and abbreviation(s). Students will sort the amino acids according to the chemical properties (polarity, size, charge) of their side chains. This formative assessment will assure that students understand these properties before the next activities. Tidbit: Mutation Analysis and
Function Prediction Handouts listing a known human mutation are given. (Three different mutations will be used, each one to a different group.) Students are asked to predict functional outcomes that may result from the mutations. Second set of handouts then will be given showing the actual data for that mutation. If the students hypotheses were not supported, they should make a
second hypothesis. A final handout explains the details of the structural change and how it affects the hemoglobin function. Citations to primary sources are included. Hemoglobin beta chain structure http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/remediatedSequence.do?structureId=2DN3
Tidbit: Mutation Analysis and Function Prediction Discussion of the mutations and their effects is a formative assessment for this tidbit. Summative Assessment Students will write a 150 word essay on the following pictorial question.
Whats protein got to do with it? Summary Intro: Reminder of Protein Structure Tidbit 1: Enzyme Regulation by Allosteric Regulators Formative: Clicker questions
Summative: Literature reading and essay Tidbit 2: Hemoglobin Structure, Function and Regulation Formative: Group discussion questions, group activities Summative: Group activity, 150-word essay
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