Protein Metabolism - University of Sydney

Protein Metabolism - University of Sydney

Protein Metabolism Starvation Amino acids released by proteolysis Channeled to the liver for gluconeogenesis Although not all amino acids can be made into glucose Some must be made into ketone bodies Removal of amine group Achieved by transaminases

Put amino group onto a 2-oxo acid Creating a new amino acid But limited to a select few Amino acid becomes a 2-oxo acid A carbon-skeleton Destined for gluoconeogensis or ketogenesis Transamination

Transamination If R2 = -CH3 keto acid = pyruvate amino acid = alanine = -CH2-COO keto acid = oxaloacetate amino acid = aspartate = -CH2-CH2-COO keto acid = ketoglutarate

amino acid = glutamate Fate of NH2 Amine groups are channeled into urea Synthesised from aspartate and glutamates amine groups in the urea cycle Urea is non-toxic The alternative would be conversion to ammonia, which is toxic

Urea cycle only occurs in the liver Protein Metabolism - Fed State Protein intake: ~1g/kg/day Mixture of amino acids Essential: cannot be made by us Non-essential: can be made from amination of carbon skeletons

Protein Quality Some food (especially vegetables) are deficient in some essential amino acids Rice: thr & lys are low Maize: lysine is low Protein quality is: Low if some essential amino acids are missing High if full mixture of essential amino acids are present If one amino acid is missing, then proteins contain that

amino acid cannot be made cannot make a protein! Its all or nothing. Compromises pool of the other amino acids No Protein Store Amino acids from diet are used to make new proteins very expensive to make a new protein, new proteins are made only when they are needed Excess amino acids have to be degraded

There is no amino acid storage in our body Transamination is the key smashing up reaction Slightly different emphasis in fed state than in starvation C-skeletons burnt in the tissues of origin rather than being sent, as amino acids, to liver Amine groups put onto pyruvate (forming alanine) for transport from peripheral tissues to liver Amine groups still made into urea by liver

Transamination in Muscle & Liver

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