Psychology

Psychology

Psychology Fifth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White Copyright 2018, 2015, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Psychology Fifth Edition

13 Chapter 13 Theories of Personality Learning Objectives 1 of 2 13.1 Explain how the mind and personality are structured, according to Freud. 13.2 Distinguish among the five psychosexual stages of personality development. 13.3 Describe how the neo-Freudians modified Freuds theory. 13.4 Evaluate the influence of Freudian theory on modern personality theories. 13.5 Compare and contrast the learning theories of Bandura and Rotter. 13.6 Evaluate the strengths and limitations of the behavioral and social

cognitive learning views of personality. 13.7 Describe how humanists such as Carl Rogers explain personality. 13.8 Evaluate the strengths and limitations of the humanistic view of personality. Learning Objectives 2 of 2 13.9 Describe early attempts to use traits to conceptualize personality. 13.10 Identify the five trait dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. 13.11 Evaluate the strengths and limitations of the trait view of personality. 13.12 Explain how twin studies and adoption studies are used in the field of behavioral genetics. 13.13 Summarize current research on the heritability of personality.

13.14 Identify the advantages and disadvantages of using interviews, behavioral assessments, and personality inventories to measure personality. 13.15 Identify the advantages and disadvantages of using projective personality tests. 13.16 Identify some biological bases of personality. Psychodynamic Perspectives Personality: the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave Includes character and temperament Character: value judgments made about a persons moral and ethical behavior

Temperament: the enduring characteristics with which each person is born Freuds Conception of Personality 1 of 8 Learning Objective 13.1 Explain how the mind and personality are structured, according to Freud. Freud founder of psychoanalytic movement Europe during the Victorian Age Men supposedly unable to control their animal desires; a good Victorian husband would father several children with his wife and then turn to a mistress for sexual comfort, leaving his virtuous wife untouched Women were not supposed to have sexual urges

Freuds Conception of Personality 2 of 8 The Structure of the Mind Freud divided mind into the preconscious, conscious and unconscious Believed unconscious mind was most important factor in human behavior and personality Freuds Conception of Personality 3 of 8 Preconscious mind: information is available but not currently conscious Conscious mind: level aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions Unconscious mind: level in which thoughts,

feelings, memories, and other information that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness are kept Freuds Conception of Personality 4 of 8 Freuds Divisions of the Personality Personality divided into three parts, each existing at one or more levels of consciousness How parts develop and interact with each other is basis for Freuds theory Each part in constant state of conflict with others Id: devil Superego: angel Ego: person caught in the middle

Figure 13.1 Freuds Conception of the Personality This iceberg represents the three levels of the mind. The part of the iceberg visible above the surface is the conscious mind. Just below the surface is the preconscious mind, everything that is not yet part of the conscious mind. Hidden deep below the surface is the unconscious mind, feelings, memories, thoughts, and urges

that cannot be easily brought into consciousness. While two of the three parts of the personality (ego and superego) exist at all three levels of awareness, the id is completely in the unconscious mind. Freuds Conception of Personality 5 of 8 Id: part of the personality present at birth; completely unconscious Libido: instinctual energy that may come into conflict with demands of a societys standards for behavior Pleasure principle: principle by which the id functions;

immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences Freuds Conception of Personality 6 of 8 Ego: part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality; mostly conscious, rational, and logical Reality principle: principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result Freuds Conception of Personality 7 of 8 Superego: part of the personality that acts as a moral center

Ego ideal: part of superego that contains the standards for moral behavior Conscience: part of superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the ego ideal Freuds Conception of Personality 8 of 8 Psychological defense mechanisms: unconscious distortions of a persons perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety Table 13.1 The Psychological Defense Mechanisms 1 of 2 Defense Mechanism and Definition

Example Denial: refusal to recognize or acknowledge a threatening situation. Renata refuses to acknowledge her son was killed during his recent military deployment. Repression: pushing threatening or conflicting events or situations out of conscious memory.

Regan, who was sexually abused as a child, cannot remember the abuse at all. Rationalization: making up acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior. If I dont have breakfast, I can have that piece of cake later on without hurting my diet. Projection: placing ones own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts belonged to them and not to oneself.

Maria is attracted to her sisters husband but denies this and believes the husband is attracted to her. Reaction formation: forming an emotional reaction or attitude that is the opposite of ones threatening or unacceptable actual thoughts. Kyle is unconsciously attracted to Cian but outwardly voices an extreme hatred of homosexuals. Table 13.1 The Psychological Defense

Mechanisms 2 of 2 Defense Mechanism and Definition Example Displacement: expressing feelings that would be threatening if directed at the real target onto a less threatening substitute target. Sandra gets reprimanded by her boss and goes home to angrily pick a fight with her husband.

Regression: falling back on childlike patterns as a way of coping with stressful situations. Four-year-old Blaine starts wetting his bed after his parents bring home a new baby. Identification: trying to become like someone else to deal with ones anxiety. Samantha really admires Emily, the most popular girl in school, and tries to copy her behavior and dress.

Compensation (substitution): trying to make Ethan is not good at athletics, so he puts up for areas in which a lack is perceived by all of his energies into becoming an becoming superior in some other area. academic scholar. Sublimation: turning socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behavior. Ryder, who is very aggressive, becomes a mixed martial arts fighter. Stages of Personality Development 1 of 5 Learning Objective 13.2 Distinguish among the five psychosexual stages of personality development.

Psychosexual stages: five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child Fixation: if the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage, it will result in personality traits and behaviors associated with that earlier stage Stages of Personality Development 2 of 5 Oral stage: first stage, occurring in first 18 months of life, in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict Id dominated

Stages of Personality Development 3 of 5 Anal stage: second stage, occurring between 18 and 36 months of age; the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict Ego develops Anal expulsive personality: a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile Anal retentive personality: a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn Stages of Personality Development 4 of 5 Phallic stage: third stage, occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age; the child discovers sexual

feelings Superego develops Oedipus complex: situation occurring in phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to oppositesex parent and jealousy of same-sex parent Electra complex: a similar process for girls Stages of Personality Development 5 of 5 Latency stage: fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways Genital stage: during and after puberty, sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets

The Neo-Freudians 1 of 5 Learning Objective 13.3 Describe how the neo-Freudians modified Freuds theory. Neo-Freudians: followers of Freud who developed their own competing theories of psychoanalysis Retained some of Freuds concepts But moved away from psychoanalysis to impact of social environment The Neo-Freudians 2 of 5 Jung: developed a theory including both a personal and a collective unconscious Personal unconscious: Jungs name for the

unconscious mind as described by Freud Collective unconscious: the memories shared by all members of the human species Archetypes: collective, universal human memories The Neo-Freudians 3 of 5 Adler: proposed that feelings of inferiority are the driving force behind personality Developed birth order theory Firstborn children feel inferior to younger children who receive attention; become overachievers Middle children feel superior to dethroned older children, as well as younger children; tend to be very competitive Younger children feel inferior because they dont have the

freedom or responsibility of older children The Neo-Freudians 4 of 5 Horney: developed a theory based on basic anxiety; rejected the concept of penis envy Basic anxiety: anxiety created when a child is born into the bigger and more powerful world of older children and adults Neurotic personalities: the result of less-secure upbringings and paired with maladaptive ways of dealing with relationships The Neo-Freudians 5 of 5 Erikson: developed a theory based on social

rather than sexual relationships, covering the entire life span Eight psychosocial stages Current Thoughts on Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective Learning Objective 13.4 Evaluate the influence of Freudian theory on modern personality theories. Current research has found support for: Defense mechanisms Concept of an unconscious mind that can influence conscious behavior

Other Freudian concepts cannot be scientifically researched Interpretation of dreams and free association Based theory strictly on wealthy clients Learning Theories 1 of 4 Learning Objective 13.5 Compare and contrast the learning theories of Bandura and Rotter. Behaviorists define personality as a set of learned responses or habits Habit: well-learned response that has become automatic Watson and Skinner

Learning Theories 2 of 4 Social cognitive learning theorists emphasize the influences of other peoples behavior and a persons own expectancies on learning Bandura and Rotter Social cognitive view: learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of models Learning Theories 3 of 4 Banduras reciprocal determinism: explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to

determine future behavior Self-efficacy: an individuals perception of how effective a behavior will be in any particular circumstance (not the same as self-esteem) Figure 13.2 Reciprocal Determinism In Banduras model of reciprocal determinism, three factors influence behavior: the environment, which consists of the physical surroundings and the potential for reinforcement; the person (personal/cognitive characteristics that have been rewarded in the past); and the behavior itself, which may or may not be reinforced at this particular time and place. Learning Theories 4

of 4 Rotters Social Learning Theory: based on principle of motivation People want to seek reinforcement and avoid punishment Locus of control: internal vs. external Expectancy: a persons subjective feeling that a particular behavior will lead to a reinforcing consequence. Current Thoughts on the Behavioral and Social Cognitive Learning Views Learning Objective 13.6 Evaluate the strengths and limitations of the behavioral

and social cognitive learning views of personality. Behaviorism as explanation of personality formation has limitations Does not take mental processes into account Doesnt give weight to social influences on learning Social cognitive view includes social and mental processes Tested under scientific conditions Carl Rogers and the Humanistic Perspective 1 of 5 Learning Objective 13.7 Describe how humanists such as Carl Rogers explain

personality. Humanistic perspective: the third force in psychology Focuses on aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice Developed as a reaction against the negativity of psychoanalysis and the deterministic nature of behaviorism Rogers and Maslow The Humanistic Perspective In the 1950s, the humanistic perspective arose

largely due to dissatisfaction with both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. This third wave in psychology emphasized peoples Innate capacity for personal growth Ability to consciously make choices Human Nature: Judeo-Christian View Human Nature Potentially Good Image of God Potentially Evil Fall of man

Conflict between good & evil Restoration to good: Redeemed by God (Savior) (repentance/belief) Willingness to obey God (new nature) Human Nature: Freudian View Human Nature Desire to be good social acceptance Tendency for Evil selfish desires

Conflict between good & evil Restoration to good: Internalization of social rules Understanding/insight Human Nature: Humanist View Human Nature Innately Good Warped by society Conflict between desire to actualize Self and pleasing others/society. Restoration to good:

Receive unconditional positive regard Self-actualize (realize potential) Carl Rogers and the Humanistic Perspective 2 of 5 Self-actualizing tendency: the striving to fulfill ones innate capacities and capabilities Self-concept: the image of oneself that develops from interactions with important, significant people in ones life Self-archetype that works with the ego to manage other archetypes and balance the personality Carl Rogers and the Humanistic

Perspective 3 of 5 Real self: ones perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities Ideal self: ones perception of whom one should be or would like to be Figure 13.3 Real and Ideal Selves According to Rogers, the selfconcept includes the real self and the ideal self. The real self is a persons actual perception of traits and abilities, whereas the ideal self is the perception of what a person would like to be or thinks he or she

should be. When the ideal self and the real self are very similar (matching), the person experiences harmony and contentment. When there is a mismatch between the two selves, the person experiences anxiety and may engage in neurotic behavior. Carl Rogers and the Humanistic Perspective 4 of 5 Positive regard: warmth, affection, love and respect that come from significant others in ones life

Unconditional positive regard: positive regard that is given without conditions or strings attached Conditional positive regard: positive regard that is given only when person doing what providers of positive regard wish Carl Rogers and the Humanistic Perspective 5 of 5 Fully functioning person: a person who is in touch with and trusting of the deepest, innermost urges and feelings Current Thoughts on the Humanistic View of Personality

Learning Objective 13.8 Evaluate the strengths and limitations of the humanistic view of personality. Picture is a little too rosy Very difficult to test scientifically Connection to positive psychology Allport and Cattell: Early Attempts to List and Describe Traits 1 of 3 Learning Objective 13.9 Describe early attempts to use traits to conceptualize personality. Trait theories: theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human

personality in an effort to predict future behavior Trait: a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving Allport and Cattell: Early Attempts to List and Describe Traits 2 of 3 Allport first developed a list of about 200 traits; he believed these traits were part of nervous system Cattell reduced number of traits to 16 (with 7 additional source traits) with a computer method called factor analysis Developed the 16PF test Allport and Cattell: Early Attempts to List

and Describe Traits 3 of 3 Surface traits: aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person Source traits: the more basic traits that underlie the surface traits, forming the core of personality Example: introversion Dimension of personality in which people tend to withdraw from excessive stimulation Figure 13.4 Cattells Self-Report Inventory The personality profiles of individuals working in various occupations may be characterized

by using such tools as Cattells 16PF self-report inventory. For example, airline pilots versus writers. Airline pilots, when compared to writers, tend to be more conscientious, relaxed, self-assured, and far less sensitive. Writers, on the other hand, were more imaginative and better able to think abstractly. Based on Cattell (1973). Modern Trait Theories: The Big Five Learning Objective 13.10 Identify the five trait dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Five-factor model (Big Five): basic trait dimensions 1. Openness: willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences 2. Conscientiousness: the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability

3. Extraversion: ones need to be with other people 4. Agreeableness: the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant 5. Neuroticism: degree of emotional instability or stability Table 13.2 The Big Five Higher Scorer Characteristics Factor (OCEAN) Low Scorer Characteristics Creative, artistic, curious,

imaginative Openness (O) Conventional, down-to-earth, uncreative nonconforming Organized, reliable, neat, ambitious Conscientiousness (C) Unreliable, lazy, careless, negligent, spontaneous Talkative, optimistic, sociable,

affectionate Extraversion (E) Reserved, comfortable being alone, stays in the background Good-natured, trusting, helpful Agreeableness (A) Rude, uncooperative, irritable, aggressive, competitive

Worrying, insecure, anxious, temperamental Neuroticism (N) Calm, secure, relaxed, stable Source: Adapted from McCrae & Costa (1990). Blank cell Blank cell

Current Thoughts on the Trait Perspective Learning Objective 13.11 Evaluate the strengths and limitations of the trait view of personality. Trait-situation interaction: assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed. Cross-cultural research has found support for fivefactor model in all primary cultural regions Future research will explore the degree to which childrearing practices and heredity may influence the five personality factors The Biology of Personality: Behavioral

Genetics 1 of 2 Learning Objective 13.12 Explain how twin studies and adoption studies are used in the field of behavioral genetics. Behavioral genetics: study of the relationship between heredity and personality Twin and adoption studies have found support for a genetic influence on many personality traits Heritability: how much some trait within a population can be attributed to genetic influences, and the extent individual genetic variation impacts differences in observed behavior The Biology of Personality: Behavioral

Genetics 2 of 2 Twin studies James Arthur Springer and James Edward Lewis, otherwise known as the Jim twins, were separated shortly after birth and reunited at age thirty-nine Exhibited many similarities in personality and personal habits Minnesota twin study showed identical twins more similar than fraternal twins Figure 13.5 Personalities of Identical and Fraternal Twins Identical and fraternal twins

differ in the way they express the Big Five personality factors. In a recent study, data from 696 twin pairs suggest identical twins have a correlation of about 45 percent for self-ratings across each of the Big Five factor domains, whereas fraternal twins have a correlation of about 22 percent. These findings give support to the idea that some aspects of personality are

genetically based. Based on: Kandler et al. (2010) Current Findings on the Heritability of Personality Learning Objective 13.13 Summarize current research on the heritability of personality. Heritability how much some trait within a population can be attributed to genetic influences Studies suggest five personality factors have nearly a 50% rate of heritability Variations in personality traits 25% to 50% inherited

Environmental influences account for about half of personality traits as well Geert Hofstedes Four Dimensions of Cultural Personality Geert Hofstedes study involved 64 countries Four basic dimensions along which cultures differ: Individualism/collectivism Power distance

Masculinity/femininity Uncertainty avoidance Interviews, Behavioral Assessments, and Personality Inventories 1 of 3 Learning Objective 13.14 Identify the advantages and disadvantages of using interviews, behavioral assessments, and personality inventories to measure personality. Behavioral Assessments: behaviorist assumes personality is merely habitually learned responses to stimuli Direct observation: assessment in which professional observes client engaged in ordinary, day-to-day

behavior in either clinical or natural setting Rating scale Frequency count Interviews, Behavioral Assessments, and Personality Inventories 2 of 3 Interview: personality assessment in which professional asks questions of the client and allows client to answer, either in a structured or unstructured fashion Halo effect: tendency of an interviewer to allow positive characteristics of a client to influence the assessments of the clients behavior and statements

Interviews, Behavioral Assessments, and Personality Inventories 3 of 3 Personality Inventory: paper-and-pencil or computerized test that consists of statements that require a specific, standardized response from the person taking test NEO-PI: based on the five-factor model Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: based on Jungs theory of personality types MMPI-2: designed to detect abnormal behavior or thinking patterns in personality Table 13.3 Who Uses What Method? Type of Assessment

Most Likely Used by Interviews Psychoanalysts, humanistic therapists Projective Tests Psychoanalysts Rorschach Thematic Apperception Test

Behavioral Assessments Behavioral and social cognitive therapists Personality Inventories Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) Neuroticism/Extraversion/Openness Personality Trait theorists Direct observation Rating scales

Frequency counts Inventory (NEO-PI-3) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) Keirsey Temperament Sorter II California Psychological Inventory (CPI) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Version II, Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Projective Tests 1 of 2 Learning Objective 13.15 Identify the advantages and disadvantages of using projective personality tests.

Projective tests: personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind Rorschach inkblot test: projective test that uses ten inkblots as the ambiguous stimuli Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): projective test that uses twenty pictures of people in ambiguous situations as the visual stimuli Figure 13.6 Rorschach Inkblot Example A facsimile of a Rorschach inkblot. A person being

tested is asked to tell the interviewer what he or she sees in an inkblot similar to the one shown. Answers are neither right nor wrong but may reveal unconscious concerns. What do you see in this inkblot? Figure 13.7 Thematic Apperception Test Example A sample from the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).

When you look at this picture, what story does it suggest to you? Who is the person? Why is he climbing a rope? Projective Tests 2 of 2 Problems with projective tests Subjective: concepts and impressions that are only valid within a particular persons perception and may be influenced by biases, prejudice, and personal experiences With no standard grading scales, projective tests are low in reliability and validity

Biological Bases of Personality Learning Objective 13.16 Identify some biological bases of personality. Study by Dr. Colin DeYoung (2010) suggests that certain areas of brain are associated with certain personality traits Extraversion / medial orbitofrontal cortex Neuroticism / middle cingulate cortex Agreeableness / posterior cingulate cortex

Conscientiousness / left lateral prefrontal cortex Researchers urge caution Some studies were with small samples More studies needed

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