Punctuation Review . ? ! , ; : ' ( ) - " "

Punctuation Review . ? ! , ; : ' ( ) - " "

Apostrophes Angela Gulick CAS Writing Specialist June 2015 Apostrophes Apostrophes have three main uses: 1. An apostrophe replaces a letter in a contraction (its = it is, dont = do not, weve = we have, cant = can not, and so on). 2. An apostrophe is used in a name or an hour (OConnor, OCallahan, seven oclock). 3. An apostrophe is used to indicate a case of ownership or possession. This use will be discussed in the next slides.

Apostrophes Tip One: Determine if you need an apostrophe by rephrasing your expression this way: _________ owns/possesses/has __________. My friends blue scarf is lost. >>> My friend owns/possesses/has a blue scarf. >>> This sentence needs an apostrophe. My friends blue scarf is lost. Parkland Colleges new computers are due on Friday. >>> Parkland College owns/possesses/has new computers. >>> This sentence needs an apostrophe. Parkland Colleges new computers are due on Friday. Many students homework assignments got lost in the classroom. >>> Many students own/possess/have homework assignments. This sentence needs an apostrophe. Many students homework assignments got lost in the classroom. The dogs at the end of the road wont stop barking. >>> The dogs own/possess/have the end of the road. >>> This doesnt make sense; dogs cant own roads. This sentence does not need an apostrophe. The Super Bowl fans are out of control. >>> The fans own/possess/have the Super Bowl. >>>This doesnt make sense; fans cant own the Super Bowl. This sentence does not need an apostrophe. Apostrophes that you need an Tip Two: Once you have determined apostrophe, follow these steps in this order: 1. Write the word (singular or plural) as you normally would

without adding any apostrophe. Just write the word first: friend, Parkland College, and brothers. 2. Think of the apostrophe as a + sign. Add the + to the end of the word you just wrote: friend+, Parkland College+, and brothers+. 3. Change the + to an apostrophe: friend, Parkland College, brothers. 4. Add an s after the apostrophe: friends, Parkland Colleges, brotherss 5. If you end up having two ss in a row (brotherss), omit the final s after the apostrophe: brotherss >>> brothers. Apostrophes Original Word + sign

Change + to add s cat (one) cat+ cats cats (> one) cats+ catss > omit extra s company (one) company+ companys companies (> one) companies+ companiess > omit extra s woman (one)

woman+ womans women (> one) women+ womens Karen (one) Karen+ Karens Chris (one) Chris+ Chriss * Mr. Jenkins (one) Mr. Jenkins+ Mr. Jenkinss

Smiths (> one) Smiths + Smithss > omit extra s ** Usage varies when it comes to words ending in s. The most commonly stated rules are as follows: * If a singular word ends in s, add s. >>> Chriss, Mr. Jenkinss, Los Angeless. **If a word is plural and ends in s, omit the final s >>> Bradleys, Smiths, Guicks Do You Still Have Questions? If you still have questions, please stop by the Writing Lab (D120) or check out our list of writing workshops on the CAS Resources page . Here are additional websites that can help you with grammar, punctuation, and mechanics issues. The first two links with s also have online exercises with answer keys to help you practice. Grammar Bytes Note: This site might require you to download a small program onto your computer the first time you use it. Guide to Grammar and Writing Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) Grammar Girl The Blue Book of Grammar

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