Semicolons, Colons, Dashes, PUNCTUATION Punctuation marks are the traffic signals of prose: they tell us to slow down, notice this, take a detour, and stop. Lynne Truss
1. Woman without her man is nothing PUNCTUATION 1. Woman, without her man, is nothing. 2. Woman: without her, man is nothing. PERIODS
A period is a full stop. It marks the end of a sentence. It marks the end of an idea or a thought. It marks the end of an action. Use a period at the end of an indirect question . - The teacher asked why Maria had left out the easy exercises. - My father used to wonder why Egbert's ears were so big. Dont use a period with common abbreviations : - Johnny works for the FBI.
- According to the Modern Language Association (ML A), this is correct. The ML A has many guidelines! QUESTION MARKS Use a Q ues tio n M ar k at t h e en d of a dir ect qu est ion . - Would you like to go to the store? You like ice cream, dont you? Question marks are used in academic writing to pose Rhetorical Questions.
Those are questions posed not in order to elicit an actual answer but instead to make a statement. But does the author address these concerns in a convincing manner? Siebold uses many examples heroes using of guns to protect the innocent, but does he ever use examples of the innocent accidentaly wounding themselves or others with guns? EXCLAMATION MARKS Dont use them!
EXCLAMATION MARKS COMMAS Lets eat Grandpa. Six rules COMMAS
RULE 1: Direct Address Always use a comma when directly addressing someone/something, regardless of whether the direct address is at the beginning or end of the sentence. If the direct address is in the middle of a sentence, use a pair of commas to set off the direct address. - Lets eat, Grandpa. - Steve, this steak is excellent! - I really do think, dear mother, that I am too old for
diapers. COMMAS COMMAS RULE 2: Compound Sentences Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) to join two independent clauses.
I am going to the mall, but Im not going to buy anything. COMMAS RULE 3: Complex Sentences and Introductory Material Use a comma after an introductory word, phrase, or dependent clause that comes before an independent clause.
Word: No, I am not planning to go out this weekend. Phrase: After work, Im going to the store. Clause: Before they go to school, the kids always have breakfast. COMMAS RULE 4: Parenthetical Phrases Use commas to offset (or set apart) any word, phrase, or dependent clause that has been inserted into a sentence but is
NOT ESSENTIAL to the main clause. The words and phrases often rename or tell more about the words they modify, and can, in most cases, be used as substitutes for those words. Because a comma is needed on either side , they are often referred to as PARENTHETICAL COMMAS . Michael Jackson, the greatest artist of all time, died a tragic death. Writing a letter of application that is clear, complete, and concise is a challenge.
COMMAS RULE 5: Introducing quotes Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation. Do not use a comma when embedding a partial quote in your writing. In 1848, Marx wrote, Workers of the world, unite! As opposed to In848, Marx was not writing to the owners of the means
of production; rather, when he used the word Workers he was only speaking to the proletariat. COMMAS RULE 6: Separating Words U s e a c o m m a t o s e p a r a te t h ree o r m o re i te m s i n a l i st , i n c l u d i n g l i s ts of a d j e c t i v e s t h a t d e s c r i b e a n ou n . Th e i te m s m ay c o m e i n th e f o rm o f w ord s , p h r a s e s, o r c l a u s e s . Wo r d s
I a m re q u i re d t o w o r k o n M o n d a y , We d n e s d a y , a n d Fr i d a y. Phrases I h a v e a l w a y s l o v e d re a d i n g b o o k s , g o i n g t o t h e p a r k , a n d s i n g i n g i n t h e s h o w e r. Clauses I had a bad day because the police pulled me over, my boss yelled at me, and I was late for class. Adjectives Lo o k a t t h a t b ro w n , h a i r y d o g !
COMMAS THE OXFORD COMMA Otherwise known as the serial comma, we use this comma in lists before the word and - I love the house, fence, and yard. THE OXFORD COMMA
THE SEMICOLON The semicolon is used in two ways: - in place of a period to separate two Complete Sentences. - to separate items in a complex list. THE SEMICOLON
RULE 1: To make a COMPLEX list that requires commas easier to read and understand, put semicolons between the items instead of commas. I grew up in a series of small towns: Cumberland, British Columbia; Red Deer, Alberta; and Timmins, Ontario. NOTE: This is a rare use of the semi-colon.
THE SEMICOLON - I have been to Newcastle, Carlisle, and York. (commas used to separate the list items) - I have been to Newcastle, Carlisle, and York in the North; Bristol, Exeter, and Portsmouth in the South; and Cromer, Norwich, and Lincoln in the East. (semicolons used to separate the list items as the list items themselves contain commas) - You should choose ham, chicken, or char-grilled
vegetable sandwiches; cups of tea, Bovril, or coffee (if you don't mind them lukewarm); or red wine (one of the few options that's drinkable when lukewarm) THE SEMICOLON Rule 2: THE SEMICOLON replaces a period; it separates two sentences.
When used in a sentence, it must appear between two independent clauses/sentences that can stand on their own. THE SEMICOLON Rule 2: Good:
I like ice-cream; I also like cake. The author claims that Johnny was shot by a nameless example of the neighbourhood thug that gives her community a bad name; the shooter is not an individual but a type. THE SEMICOLON Rule 2:
Bad: I like ice-cream; and cake too. The author claims that Johnny was shot by a nameless example of the neighbourhood thug that gives her community a bad name; not an individual but a type. COLON The colon functions as an
introducer. It alerts the reader that some sort of explanatory detail is coming up. The statement that comes before the colon must be an independent clause. It must be a sentence that can stand on its own. COLON
Not this: When I go to the game, I always bring: a chair, a blanket, and a hat. But this: When I go to the football game, I always bring supplies: a chair, a blanket, and a hat.
COLON EXAMPLE 1 It can be used before a list of one or more EXAMPLES that define, explain or illustrate the SENTENCE. When I travel, I am never without three things: sturdy shoes, a money belt, and my journal. There is only one enemy we cannot defeat: time.
COLON EXAMPLE 2 You can use it after a complete SENTENCE that introduces a quotation. Maude Barlow of the Council of Canadians encouraged young people to vote: If you want to know who is going to change this country, go home and look in the mirror.
Warning! Explicit Lyrics! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M94ii6MVilw THE APOSTROPHE The apostrophe has two main uses: 1. Contractions 2. Possessives
THE APOSTROPHE 1. Contractions: when one or more letters are left out of a word, use an apostrophe to form a contraction. He would = hed Cannot = cant Should have = shouldve In academic writing we do not use contractions.
THE APOSTROPHE Possessives: use the apostrophe to show ownership. The word before the apostrophe is the owner. To see if you need to make a possessive, turn the phrase around and make it an "of the..." phrase. the boy's hat = the hat of the boy three days' journey = journey of three days If the noun after "of" is a building, an object, or a piece of
furniture, then no apostrophe is needed! room of the hotel = hotel room door of the car = car door leg of the table = table leg THE APOSTROPHE add s to the singular form of the word (even if it ends in -s):
The mans coat The bosss idea Jamess rebuttal add 's to the plural forms that do not end in -s: the children's game the geese's honking THE APOSTROPHE
add ' to the end of plural nouns that end in -s: two cats' toys three friends' letters the countries' laws add 's to the end of compound words: my brother-in-law's money add 's to the last noun to show joint possession of an
object: Todd and Anne's apartment THE APOSTROPHE Remember: pronoun possessives do not use an apostrophe: The board is meeting; its mandate is to increase profits Whose car is this? That is my car.
Or wait, is it yours? Oh no! that car is hers! THE DASH Wild NightsWild Nights! (249) Wild Nights Wild Nights! Were I with thee Wild Nights should be Our luxury!
Futile the winds To a heart in port Done with the compass Done with the chart! Rowing in Eden Ah, the sea! Might I moor Tonight In thee!
THE DASH Dashes are used in two ways: 1. Like parenthetical commas to set off or emphasize the content enclosed within dashes Lasn describes the mediaas corrosive and community destroyingthroughout his essay. Davies cites his own superstitious ritualhe claims to have kissed a baby for luckas proof that even the thoughtful and educated among us are prone to such
behaviour. THE DASH 2. Like colons to emphasis the content that follows a dash. Like a colon, you must either have an independent clause before the dash, or you must be using the dash to provide a definition.
Donutsthey are not just for breakfast anymore! Lasn gives many examples of the medias influence and none of them are positive. THE DASH Use sparingly in academic writing.
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