Puritan Beliefs and the Salem Witch Trials

Puritan Beliefs and the Salem Witch Trials

Puritanism (Age of FAITH) The 2 nd Literary Movement 1500-1700 (approximate dates) Standards Covered: ELAALRL1 The student demonstrates comprehension by identifying evidence (i.e., examples of diction,

imagery, point of view, figurative language, symbolism, plot events and main ideas) in a variety of texts representative of different genres (i.e., poetry, prose [short story, novel, essay, editorial, biography], and drama) and using this evidence as the basis for interpretation. ELAALRL3 The student deepens understanding of literary works by relating them to their contemporary context or historical background, as well as to works

from other time periods . What cultural inferences can we make based on Puritan Art? What inferences can we make about Puritan women and wives based on this poem?

Read Ann Bradstreet's poem "To my Dear and Loving Husband " If ever two were one, then surely we. If ever man were lov'd by wife, then thee. If ever wife was happy in a man, Compare with me, ye women, if you can. I prize thy love more than whole Mines of gold Or all the riches that the East doth hold. My love is such that Rivers cannot quench,

Nor ought but love from thee give recompetence. Thy love is such I can no way repay. The heavens reward thee manifold, I pray. Then while we live, in love let's so persever That when we live no more, we may live ever. Who were these Puritans? Puritan is a broad term referring to a

number of Protestant groups who sought to purify the Church of England which had been closely connected to its government. Who were these Puritans?

Puritans wished to return to a simpler form of worship and church organization described in the New Testament. Who were the Puritans Cont They wanted to reform their national

church by eliminating every shred of Catholic influence Their attempt to purify the Church of England and their own lives was based on the teachings of John Calvin Left for the new world in 1620 to escape religious persecution and established the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Puritan Culture Quote of the week from Puritansermons.com: "Sin in a wicked man is like poison in a serpent; it is in its natural place." Cotton Mather (1663-1728)

Promoted inoculation against a small pox epidemic in 1721 Many refused to get inoculated because they believed they were interfering with Gods plan for them and possibly cheating death When many who had been inoculated died anyway, it

became a non-issue for most John Winthrop -from a sermon preached on the way to the New World, spring 1630, by John Winthrop For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this

work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world: we shall open the mouths of enemies to speak evil of the ways of God and all professors for Gods sake; we shall shame the faces of many of Gods worthy servants, and cause their prayers to be turned into curses upon us, till we be consumed out of the good land whither we are going.

Leading Puritan Writers William Bradford Of Plymouth Plantation Leading Puritan Writers William Byrd

The History of the Dividing Line Characteristics of Puritan Writing The Bible provided a model for Puritan writing each individual life was a journey to

salvation. They saw a direct connection between Biblical events (allusions) and their own lives. Puritan Literature Dominated by religion: theological studies, hymns,

histories, biographies, autobiographies Purpose was to provide spiritual insight and instruction Regarded fiction and drama as sinful Used poetry as a vehicle of spiritual enlightenment Believed in a plain style of writing that had a clear

message Heavy hitters: Anne Bradstreet, Edward Taylor, Increase Cotton Mather Anne Bradstreet Puritan Writings-A Means to Provide Spiritual

Enlightenment, Instruction and Self-Examination They recorded forms of revelation. The Puritans believed that God revealed His purpose to humanity in three principal ways: 1. through the Bible 2. through the natural world 3. and through Divine Providence, or

Gods direct intervention in human affairs. Puritan Plain Style Reflected style of their lives spare, simple, straightforward Characterized by short words, direct statements, and references to ordinary, everyday objects

Only expressed useful or religious ideas Did not appeal to senses or emotions Puritan Beliefs Total depravity: In Adams fall we sinned all Humankind is totally sinful through the fall of Adam and Eve and damned for eternity.

Predestination: You are elect (saved) or unregenerate (damned). Salvation belongs to the elect, or Gods chosen. No good works will help you become saved. Limited atonement: Christ died only for the elect. Grace: You could feel Gods grace in an intense emotional fashion. After receiving grace, you were reborn have thenceforth full power to do the will of God and the ability

to live uprightly to the end. Puritan Beliefs Cont. The Puritan community was a theocracy, a government which blends church and state. The churchs officials were the governments officials. Thus, church and state were not separate. City upon a Hill Theory: That the new MA

Colony would be a place of complete reform (utopia) where God would be found in scripture and a strong work ethic. Education: A strong belief in education was established in order to read the Word of God. The first public school was founded in 1635 and Harvard College became an icon for educating ministers .

What do we know about the Salem Witchcraft Trials? How it started . . . Betty Parris became strangely ill. She dashed about, dove under furniture, contorted in pain, and complained of fever. The cause of her symptoms may have been some combination of stress, asthma, guilt, boredom, child abuse, epilepsy, and delusional psychosis.

Talk of witchcraft increased when other playmates of Betty, including eleven-year-old Ann Putnam, seventeen-year-old Mercy Lewis, and Mary Walcott, began to exhibit similar unusual behavior. A doctor called to examine the girls, suggested that the girls' problems might have a supernatural origin. The widespread belief that witches targeted children made the doctor's diagnosis seem increasingly likely. -Douglas Linder

Causes of Witchcraft Hysteria in Salem 11. Strong belief that Satan is acting in the world. ---------"The invisible world": disease, natural catastrophes, and bad fortune 2. A belief that Satan actively recruits witches and wizards ---------Prior witchcraft cases 3. A belief that a person afflicted by witchcraft exhibits certain

symptoms. 4. A time of troubles, making it seem likely that Satan was active. ---------Congregational strife in Salem Village ---------Frontier wars with Indians 5. Stimulation of imaginations by Tituba (slave). 6. Teenage boredom. 7. Confessing "witches" adding credibility to earlier charges. 8. Old feuds (disputes within congregation, property disputes)

between the accusers and the accused spurring charges of witchcraft. Witch Cake Tituba, a slave from Barbados, makes a witch cake, drawing suspicion on herself. A witch cake is composed of rye meal mixed with urine from the afflicted

children. It is then fed to a dog. The person is considered bewitched if the dog displays similar symptoms as the afflicted. The Trials By the end of 1692, over 200 people were jailed and standing accused of witchcraft. Hysteria Strikes Nineteen men and women were hanged, all

having been convicted of witchcraft Another man of over eighty years was pressed to death under heavy stones for refusing to submit to a trial on witchcraft charges Many languished in jail for months without trials At least four died in prison The Crucible

by Arthur Miller Setting We begin with a play, set in colonial America. Arthur Millers drama The Crucible has its feet in two eras of time, Puritanical New England Salem Witch Trials of 1692 and Cold War Washington of the 1950s. Miller

presents Americas deepest past in order to make a modern point. He saw that, as the saying goes, Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it. How the play begins . . . Group of girls caught dancing in woods with Tituba

Among the group is the Daughter of Rev. Parris and the daughter of Thomas and Anne Putnam Girls feign sickness and possession Both families demand that the possessors be found and punished

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