Pursuit of National Self-Determination

Pursuit of National Self-Determination Successor States What are Successor States? Successor states are nations that form after the breakup of larger states and/or empires. Successor states are different from decolonized states in that decolonized states get their independence because the colonial

power that controlled them gave it to them, while successor state get their independence because the state they were a part of was unable to maintain their state. The Breakup of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union broke officially ceased to be in 1991 after a decade of a stagnant economy, a failed invasion/occupation of Afghanistan, and a series of generally peaceful

revolutions by Soviet states. The policies of then Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev fostered the breakup, as they supported the Soviet Union opening up to the world and not intervening in the affairs of Soviet Ukraine: Peaceful Creation of Successor State The break up of the Soviet Union was generally peaceful, and the Ukrainian people in 1991 voted 90% in favour of

independence. When it declared independence, Ukraine declared sole control over the troops and nuclear weapons on Ukrainian soil, and they claimed possession and right to all the resources in the borders of the Ukraine. Ukraine though has received no compensation from Russia for the Challenges Ukraine face(d) Although the Ukraine has made great strides in becoming a strong

and independent nation, Ukraine has and is still facing many challenges related to corrupt government and election practices and the aspirations for self-determination from minority groups within its borders. Minority groups of Ukraine include ethnic Tartars, Hungarians, and WHAT HAPPENED IN THE UKRAINE IN 20132014?

Protests of 2013-2014 After the Yanukovych government backtracked on trade and cooperation agreements with the European Union, in favour of closer ties with Russia, the Ukrainian people protested in Kyivs central square for three months. Many protests turned violent, resulting in several deaths, and eventually President Yanukovych fled the

country, allowing pro-West President Vice News Ukraine Protest Extent of the Violence Russian Invasion in 2014 In late February 2014 Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered an invasion of Ukraines Crimean Peninsula in order to, what he claims, protect ethnic Russians living there. 2 weeks after the invasion, the Russian Crimeans, supported by

Putin, held a referendum and voted to become part of Russia. Along with annexing Crimea, it is believed that Russia is supporting pro-Russian separatists in Eastern Ukraine. Although peace talks are taking place, there is still Vice News Russian Invasion Vice News Fighting in Ukraine 2016 Chechnya: Failed Successor State Chechnya is a Southern Russian republic

that in 1994, 3 years after the fall of the Soviet Union, declared itself a sovereign state. Russia rejected Chechnyas claim of sovereignty and launched an invasion to reassert it claim over the region. Chechnyan Wars -In 1994 Russia invades Chechnya for the first time, resulting in the deaths of thousand of civilians and the eventual withdrawal of Russian forces in 1996 -In 2000 Russia invades Chechnya again

and the war is still going on to this day, and in 2007 Russia took direct control over Chechnya. Current State of Chechnya Officially, Russia ended its military operations in Chechnya in 2009, but concerns about human rights violations and lawlessness still remain. In 2015 there were confirmed reports that Jihadists, from both ISIS and Al-Qaeda, had become active in the region and are

still present. President Ramazan Kadyrov: Chechnyas Nutbar What does a Nation need to become a Sovereign State? Recognition! Recognition! Recognition! In order for a new state to become a legitimate country it needs to be

recognized as one by the international community. The more powerful countries a state can get to recognize it as a country the better. Best Recognition: From the United Nations (particularly the permanent members of the UN Security Council: United States, Breakup of Yugoslavia The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred

after a series of political upheavals and violent conflicts during the 1990s. The country faced a series of interethnic conflicts that resulted in it disintegration and the formation of the successor states Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia. Breakup in Three Minutes Kosovo Independence: A Split

Decision After the violent breakup of the Yugoslavia in 1991, Kosovo remained a part of Serbia, although the Kosovo Liberation Army launched several attacks against Serbian authorities. In 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared itself an independent state. Although the United States and most members of the European Union recognized Kosovo as an independent state, many nations (particularly Serbia and Russia) did not recognize Kosovo, and as such Kosovos

admittance into the United Nations was Kosovo Independence Nations in Europe Seeking Independence Scotland (UK) Catalonia (Spain) Flemish Republic (Belgium) Veneto (Spain) Abkhazi (Georgia) Transnistria (Moldova)

Reflection Questions 1.Why do you think Ukraines bid for independence succeeded and Chechnyas bid failed? 2.What are some challenges that successor states face when they become independent countries? 3.Do you think ethnic minorities in successor states have the right to pursue their own goal of self-determination? To what extent? 4.Do you think countries should have the right to infringe upon the sovereignty of other nations in order to protect people of their ethnic origin from instability and violence?

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