Thermohaline Circulation (Schmitz 1995) Cross Section of Thermohaline Circulation
(Brown et al. 1989) Biosphere
Vegetation Effects on Climate Albedo Roughness Evapotranspiration Atmospheric
composition Vegetation Response to Climate Faunal Response to Climate
CO2 Sequestration Land Surface Effects of Land Surface on the Climate
System Aspect Elevation Albedo
Response to the Climate System River systems Sea level change
Glacial evidence Cryosphere Ice Extent
Albedo Feedback Effects Temperature Control
Energy Balance in the Atmosphere Sensitive heat flux (H) Latent heat flux (LE) Bowen Ratio (H/LE)
Energy Balance Time Scales of Climatic Variation Climate Varies on All Time Scales Driving Processes
Climate Variation Over Multiple Scales Variations of the Earths Orbital Parameters
James Croll; Scottish natural historian 1867 Milankovitch; Elaborated on Crolls original hypothesis in 1941 Berger; Advances Milankovitchs work in the late 1970s
Eccentricity 95,800 year period. Changes in the orbital path of the Earth around the Sun. Affects the relative intensities of the seasons.
Obliquity 41,000 year period. Changes in axial tilt of the Earth. Precession 21,700 year period. Wobble of the axis causing a precession of the equinoxes. Perihelion during Northern Hemisphere summer occurred 11,000 years ago.
Orbital Factors Wobble on the Earths Axis Precession
Insolation and 18O Long Term Solar Radiation http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/Education/Intro.html; Illustration by Steele Hill
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