Online Learning Tools (workshop) John OByrne (Sydney) Mastering physics software: 40 min Alex Merchant (RMIT) Online assignments: 20 min Geoff Swan (ECU) WebCT Quizzes: 20 min Key Issues in Learning and Teaching in Undergraduate Physics A National Workshop (16:00 to 17:30 Sept 28, 2005, University of Sydney). WebCT Quizzes: Points of view Student viewpoint: ACTIVITY Do the autc05 quiz at least twice checking grades and individual question feedback Use student logins & passwords (autc1 to autc12) http://thomson4.webct.com/public/swanserwaycowan/index.html
Staff viewpoint: Show Quizzes & individual questions (eg ECU example) Creating new questions and quizzes? Course management Results (graph) & download Other? THE END Key to Participation Geoff Swan Physics Program School of Engineering and Mathematics Faculty of Computing, Health and Science Edith Cowan University
Perth, AUSTRALIA AIP Congress, Canberra ACT (Feb 1, 2005) Outline PART 1: Setting the scene Background Online quizzing environment 2003 trial PART 2: Online quizzes in 2004 Major Adjustments from trial Results Participation rates Unit grades
Student evaluation Open responses issues PART 3: Discussion Background Setting: Physics of Motion first year first sem physics unit Engineering, Aviation, Physics major & Education students Assessment: 60% Exam, 20% Labs, 20% test and/or assignments? Homework: selected end of chapter problems (Serway & Beichner/Jewitt). Not assessed. Students have worked solutions Problem (anecdotal): Struggling students do insufficient physics at home. Time: Competing demands study vs work vs family etc Motivation (affected by many factors) A Solution? Provide regular online quizzes
Engage students in regular problem solving Help students keep up with the curriculum Aim at struggling students increase confidence Encourage good study practices early (ie sem 1, year 1) Provide early & continuous feedback (positive and negative) Improve students overall performances Motion Quizzes Trial. Sem 1, 2003 Quiz No. & Topic(s) Set 0 ECUGUEST: check out ID & Password + quiz site
Week Set 1 Assessment NONE 1 2 3 4 Motion in one dimension, Vectors 2 Highest Motion in two dimensions 3 Average Newton's Laws 4 Average
Circular motion dynamics, 6 Average Work & Kinetic Energy 5 Conservation of Energy, Momentum 7 Average -------------------------------------mid-semester break----------------------------------------- 6 Rotational Motion 9 Average 7 Static Equilibrium, Elasticity, 11 Oscillatory Motion 8 Gravitation, Fluids 12 Average Average
Notes: 12 week term. Max 70 minutes for each quiz (4-6 questions). Available after topic material covered. Allowed about 8 days to complete up to 2 attempts . Student orientated 1 Flexible delivery Attempt: any place (home or ECU or ?) & any time Fit in with other commitments Guest quiz Rewards Intrinsic: better understanding Assessment: use to improve final grade (if better than mid-semester test: 20%) Revision: have extra revision questions and answers for exam No access at all if online quiz not attempted within timeframe Student orientated 2 (Feedback)
Feedback General (how am I going in this physics unit?) - Grades Specific (how do I answer this question?) - Detailed Feedback! NO detailed feedback provided by publishers test bank Immediate Feedback (within seconds!) Grades and detailed feedback Any time and any place Can act straight away on detailed feedback Attempt a similar but different quiz (2003 wait of 30 minutes) strike while the iron is hot! Can improve grade Formative assessment
Significant advantages exist with an online environment Online advantages for the Lecturer Save TIME? (for large classes) existing publisher supplied WebCT test bank (1000 questions but no detailed feedback!) and server automatic marking results easily transferred to excel mark sheet Reliable assessment Individual tests (similar but different) Alternate multiple choice questions Calculated questions (truth tables - usually 20 variations) individual quizzes = harder to cheat plus 2 nd attempt option Flexible settings questions, assessment, access and timing options
Belief: Both pedagogical and practical advantages to using the online environment WebCT Question types Multiple choice 1000 question test bank (no detailed feedback) Calculated Use formula to create truth table. ie same question but (say) 20 alternate sets of numbers Supported math operators: ( ), +, -, *, /, **, sqrt, sin(x), cos(x), exp, log (base e ie ln) Also available (but not used): Paragraph (tutor marked) Matching Short answer
Example: Masses on strings 1 Example: Masses on strings 2 FLAG Your opinion?? RATE the detailed/general feedback 1. 2. 3. Consider a borderline first year first semester physics student
to SOLVE this question FOR THEMSELVES in a second attempt Too much detail About right Not enough detail Compare with the person next to you. How does this compare with a worked solution? 2003 online quizzes trial - RECAP Online quizzes: Physics of Motion trial in sem 1, 2003 Engage students with regular problem solving 8 quizzes. Two attempts allowed (average mark normally used)
Optional assessment (if better than mid-sem test) WebCT server (supplied by publisher) Two types of questions Calculated Use formula to create truth table. ie same question but (say) 20 alternate sets of numbers Supported math operators: ( ), +, -, *, /, **, sqrt, sin(x), cos(x), exp, log (base e ie ln) Multiple choice Based on 1000+ multiple choice question testbank (no detailed feedback) Detailed Feedback written for each question 2003 Results - SUMMARY Students LIKED the Quizzes
85%+: Quizzes easy to access, relevant, improved my understanding of physics, helped me develop problem solving skills etc (N=29 with at least one quiz) 80% Detailed feedback about right (20% not detailed enough) Participation was POOR! (Of N=63 students who attempted the exam) 17% attempted 6,7 or 8 quizzes No fails in this qroup! One student passed directly due to quizzes!! 21% attempted 4 or 5 quizzes , 32% attempted 2 or 3 quizzes , 6% attempted 1 quiz 24% attempted ZERO quizzes. Four times more likely to fail? the 19 students who completed zero or one quiz accounted for two thirds of the units fail & borderline pass grades (ie 63% of these students compared with 14% of students who completed more than one quiz) Why zero quiz attempts? Lack of TIME! Main Factors given were (N=7): bloody hard, laziness, problems with internet connect
- difficult to complete quizzes, time, dont have time/hate physics anyway, hard to allocate solid 90 (sic) minutes in first few weeks and never got into it, work. MUST increase participation rate in 2004! Changes in 2004 ASSESSMENT Compulsory assessment 20% Replaced mid-semester test (now just for practice) Highest mark rather than average of two attempts From 1 of 8 quizzes in 2003 to 6 of 8 quizzes in 2004 Big incentive high marks possible for struggling students OTHER
Orientation quiz in week 1 (not assessed) Quiz time decreased (from 70 to 60 minutes) New questions & topics rearranged Research: additional survey items on The quiz environment for students: how they went about it The use of detailed feedback on individual questions Quizzes in sem 1, 2004 Participation Rates Participation how many attempted at least 6 of 8 quizzes? Consider only students who sat end of semester exam 2003 N=63 2004 N=84 2003: Just 17%
2004: 85% HUGE increase in participation rates Quiz and Unit Results Consider only students (N=84. sem 1, 2004) who sat exam Pass rates Quizzes: Pass rate 70% (Distinction rate 43%) Note: 15% students with 5 or less quizzes all failed here Unit: Pass rate 81% (Distinction rate 27%) 27% students received a distinction for the unit 87% also received quiz distinction (ie 20 of 23 students) 19% students failed unit
75% also failed quizzes (ie 12 of 16 students) Highest quiz mark for failing student was 58% Below median average for quizzes Quizzes as a good indicator for success and failure Use for early intervention!? Student evaluation of quizzes Students were extremely positive (% agreement) Respondents (N=34) with at least 6 or 7 quizzes. Survey in penultimate teaching week.): Were easy to access (97%) Were relevant to the unit content (97%) Improved my understanding of physics (94%)
Provided me with necessary practice in solving physics problems (91%) Helped me develop problem solving skills (94%) Detailed feedback was helpful (91%) Overall, helped me learn physics (94%) Students normally accessed the quizzes from home (70%) and 91% of students thought that the number of quizzes (eight) was about right. Assessment Assessment by online quizzes was fair and reasonable (71%) Future assessment 71% online quizzes only 29% combination of online quizzes and mid-sem test 62% prepared more thoroughly for the two average mark quizzes
Detailed Feedback For my learning needs, the amount of feedback provided to assist me in solving the problem for myself was About right 67% Not detailed enough 33% Consider small increase for 2005? 81% found detailed feedback sometimes useful for correctly answered questions! Interesting Not expected by author, but interesting! Subsequent conversations reveal students like to compare the lecturers method (concepts used and application) with their own regardless of whether they answered the question correctly or not. Open response questions
Provided additional information on: Preparation Detailed feedback Collaboration Study habits Preparation? Students listed a variety of ways in which they prepared for highest mark quizzes including
attending lectures reading through lecture notes reading chapters or chapter summaries in the textbook doing set problems and even reading the formula sheet. A significant minority were not well prepared, including one student whose preparation was: Nothing, I would waste the first go & work backwards from the solution unlikely to result in any meaningful learning unlikely to improve their exam score. Detailed feedback? How did students use detailed feedback? Three examples: To change the way I look at the questions
To try and understand the concepts, but sometimes it wasnt enough I used it as a guide to lookup certain information in the book and notes. I found it very good Student usage went beyond just getting the correct answer. Author was surprised and pleased! Collaboration? 44% provided help to other students 36% received help from other students some students seemed somewhat insulted with these questions!? Collaboration ranged form nothing or verbal to substantial. Consider two substantial examples:
1. We all worked out an answer, & compared the way we did it & the answers we got. It was through this that we were able to come to grips with theories 2. Group work. Do the quizzes together and work together to a solution FLAG: Should the collaboration described above (considering example 1 & example 2 separately) be: Encouraged (peer learning) Neutral Discouraged (its cheating!) Further thoughts on collaboration Students already collaborate in class time Labs: experiments done in small groups Lectures: short small group discussions on (mainly
conceptual) questions. Collaboration/group work/peer learning Necessary part of the curriculum Supported by large body of literature & resources (eg Mazur, McDermott etc) Attitudes changed over time Individual with group support now OK Original object was to replace mid-semester test (20% assessment) As long as individual learning occurs and each actual quiz attempt is done by the student logged on to the computer Delete second part of condition?? Students spending time interacting with and discussing physics is always a good thing!? Study habits? Students fairly positive here: Helped me work more consistently over the
semester (85%) The quizzes made sure that we were studying without forcing us to study The quizzes encouraged and influenced both study at and away from the computer. Consider preparation for quizzes reported by students. Conclusions Provide opportunities to learn through Detailed feedback Formative assessment Collaboration Influence study habits help students work consistently over the semester Flexible time and place Overall help students learn physics (94%)
ECU evaluation (UTEI). BIG increase in overall satisfaction for unit. Partly due to quizzes? From 64% (N=28) in 2003 to 91% (N=45) in 2004 Agree or strongly agree on 5 point scale (ie neutral counts as not satisfied) Online quizzes have made a difference Adapted for second semester unit: Waves and Electricity 2004 Continue for 2005 FURTHER INFORMATION? Contact
Dr Geoff Swan Physics Program, SOEM Edith Cowan University 100 Joondalup Drive Joondalup WA 6027 Tel: +61 08 6304 5447 Email: [email protected] Quiz site at http://thomson4.webct.com/public/swanserwayco wan/index.html (login and passwordecuguest) Discussion? How might these online quizzes be improved? Group work vs individual Context: Questions in the quizzes are mostly decontextualised. Is there a pedagogical justification? (eg can
reality be a distracter to learning physics?) How might resources like this be shared between institutions? (AUTC report recommendation) Students study habits and online quizzes Is it our business to design curriculum to encourage good study habits and/or teach study techniques? Are we responsive enough to competing demands on students who often combine uni & work & family? (AUTC report recommendation)
Paper references References Gordon, J.R., McGrew, R., & Serway, R.A. (2004). Student Solutions Manual & Study Guide to accompany Volume 1 Physics for Scientists and Engineers Sixth Edition. Belmont: Brooks/Cole. Honey, M., & Marshall, D. (2003). The impact of on-line multi-choice questions on undergraduate student learning. In G.Crisp, D.Thiele, I.Scholten, S.Barker and J.Baron (Eds.), Interact, Integrate, Impact: Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education. Adelaide, 7-10 December 2003. McInnis, C, James, R, & McNaught, C (1995). First year on campus: Diversity in the initial experiences of Australian undergraduates. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. Serway, R.A., & Jewett, J.W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern
Physics. (6th ed.). Belmont: Brooks/Cole. Swan, G.I. (2003). Regular motion. In G.Crisp, D.Thiele, I.Scholten, S.Barker and J.Baron (Eds.), Interact, Integrate, Impact: Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education. Adelaide, 7-10 December 2003. Thelwall, M. (2000). Computer-based assessment: a versatile educational tool. Computers & Education, 34, 37-49. Thomson Learning (2004). WebCT server login page. Thomson Learning. Available: http://thomson4.webct.com/public/swanserwaycowan/index.html [July 2004] Additional: Peer instruction by Mazur. Tutorials in introductory physics by McDermott & Shafer. SCP1112: Students usage and feedback SCP1112 Waves and Electricity: Semester 2, 2001 Usage (5 full & 1 half quiz) Of 73 students who attempted the SCP1112 exam 32 (44%) attempted 3 or more full quizzes 25 (34%) attempted at 1 or 2 full quizzes 16 (22%) did not attempt any quiz (for these students unit failure rate > 4
times that of other students) Feedback Large majority extremely positive (mid-sem and end-sem) easy to use, relevant, improved understanding etc feedback detail about right (a few students wanted more detail!) More divided on future compulsory assessment & No. of quizzes Helping to work more consistently over the semester
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