m m u S d an When to Quote: The wording is worth repeating or makes a point so well that no rewording will do it justice Example: Garner once told Lyndon Johnson that the vice-presidency "wasn't worth a bucket of warm spit" (45).
When you want to cite exact words of a known authority on your topic Example: Einstein said that physics is the "application of morals" (65). When to Quote: When his or her opinions challenge or disagree with those of others Example: Chung calls the proceedings "a preposterous example of freedom of the press gone awry" (33). When the source is one you want to emphasize Example: Evans, a survivor of the wreck, called the
scene on the ground "chaotic and disorganized" (1). When to Paraphrase: You want to convey information in your own words. The details, but not the exact words of a source are important. Example: Contrary to many historians, Eric Foner argues that the Republican platform of 1860 should not be understood as an indication of Whig dominance of the party (175). When you don't want to interrupt your flow with a direct quotation or too many quotations. Example of too many quotations: Karl Marx famously wrote, "Religion is the opiate of the masses." Albert Einstein said, "True religion is real living." Benjamin Franklin said,
"lighthouses are more helpful than churches." When to Summarize: When you want to present only the main idea of a long passage, such as when the particular details of a passage are not that important. Steingraber explains that experiments with dogs demonstrated that aromatic amines, chemicals used in synthetic dyes, cutting oils, and rubber, cause bladder cancer (976). When you are comparing two sources with opposing views. For example: Several studies (Johnson, 1999; Smith, 2007) suggest that these environmental policies are harmless; however, other studies (Xiao, 2004; Love, 1997) argue they may have
negatively impacted protected wildlife areas. Summarizing VS Paraphrasing Paraphrasing: Re-writing another writers words or ideas in your own words without altering the meaning About the same length as the original since the purpose is to rephrase without leaving out anything, and not to shorten Summarizing: Putting down the main ideas of someone elses work in your own words Always shorter than the original since the idea is to include only the main points of the original work and to leave out
the irrelevant Usually about one-third the size of the original. How to Incorporate Source Materials into Your Text: You need to introduce quotations, paraphrases, and summaries clearly, letting your readers know who the author isand, if need be, something about his or her credentials. Example: Professor and textbook author Elaine Tyler May argues that many high school history books are too bland to interest young readers (531). Example: Even some textbook authors believe that many high school history books are too bland to interest young
readers (May 531). Signal Phrases A signal phrase tells the reader who says or believes something. The verb you use can be neutral says or thinksor it can suggest something about the stancethe sources or your own. Common Signal Verbs Acknowledge, admits, advises, agrees, argues, asserts, believes, charges, claims, comments, concludes, concurs, confirms,
contends, declares, denies, disagrees, disputes, emphasizes, grant, illustrates, implies, insists, notes, observes, points out, reasons, rejects, reports, responds, suggests, thinks Integrating Quotes Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon. Thoreau's philosophy might be summed up best by his repeated request for people to ignore the insignificant details of life: "Our life is frittered away by detail. An honest man has hardly need to count more than his ten fingers, or in extreme
cases he may add his ten toes, and lump the rest. Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! (108). Integrating Quotes Use an introductory or explanatory phrase, but not a complete sentence, separated from the quotation with a comma. Thoreau asks, "Why should we live with such hurry and waste of life? (109). Integrating Quotes Make the quotation a part of your own sentence without any punctuation
between your own words and the words you are quoting. According to Thoreau, people are too often "thrown off the track by every nutshell and mosquito's wing that falls on the rails (111). Integrating Quotes Use short quotations--only a few words--as part of your own sentence. In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states that his retreat to the woods around Walden Pond was motivated by his desire "to live deliberately" and to face only "the essential facts of life (67).
Although Thoreau "drink[s] at" the stream of Time, he can "detect how shallow it is (100).
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verb + adverb+ preposition. phrasal-prepositional verbs have direct objects because they end with a preposition. they work grammatically the same as other prepositional verbs. e.g: This lecture quite . lived up to . my expectations.
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