MOVING THROUGH EXERCISE SCIENCE Describe how functional anatomy and biomechanical principles relate to performing physical activity. ACHIEVEMENT STANDARD 2.2 (4 credits) The A Team (Biggs/Hose) BACK TO BASICS SKELETAL SYSTEM Bones are living structures with 5 functions: protect internal organs support the body make blood cells store minerals
provide for muscle attachment IDENTIFYING BONES Label the bones on the skeleton. Use common names and scientific names e.g. skull and cranium. Which bones make up the: Elbow joint? Knee joint? Shoulder joint? The femur below has been cut to show the internal structure. Hip joint? MUSCLES Function to cause movement Controlled by nerves (some voluntary, some involuntary)
Contract (shorten) which brings bones closer together, therefore for movements to occur in both directions the muscles must work together in pairs e.g. bicep & triceps, hamstrings & quadriceps. HOW MUSCLES MOVE Muscles are attached to two different bones by tendons. When the muscle contracts only one bone moves. The place where the muscle is attached to the stationary bone is called the ORIGIN. The place where the muscle is attached to the moving bone is called the INSERTION. Origin Insertion
AGONIST/ANTAGONIST Muscles can only pull. To make a joint move in two directions, you need two muscles that can pull in opposite directions. Antagonistic muscles are pairs of muscles that work against each other. One muscle contracts (agonist, or prime mover) while the other one relaxes (antagonist) and vice versa. The origin is where the muscle joins the fixed bone. The insertion is where it joins the moving bone. On contraction,
the insertion moves towards the origin. MUSCLES FOR ENDURANCE AND POWER Muscles are made up of fibres. All individual voluntary muscle fibres are either fast twitch or slow twitch and these are good for different things. Fast Twitch for Power, Slow Twitch for Endurance Fast twitch fibres contract very quickly and very powerfully, but they get tired quickly as they run out of oxygen in under 10 seconds. They are useful for sprinting and weightlifting or other activities requiring anaerobic exercise. Slow twitch fibres contract more slowly and with less force, but they don't get tired as quickly and can replace some of the oxygen that is used. They are useful for jogging and endurance activities. Everyone has a similar number of muscle fibres, but the proportion of fast twitch and slow twitch fibres that people have differ. You cannot change the amount of slow or fast twitch muscle fibres that you have.
Does this mean sprinters are born with a natural talent or trained? QUESTIONS What is the difference between the origin and the insertion? Name 3 different activities that would require a high percentage of fast twitch fibres. Name 2 different antagonistic pairs of muscles and the movements they make. HOW MUCH DO YOU KNOW ABOUT MUSCLES AND THEIR MOVEMENTS JOINT ELBOW ELBOW
RECTUS ABDOMINUS HIP FLEXION BENDING YOUR LEG AT THE HIP JOINT ILIOPSOAS GLUTEUS MAXIMUS HIP
EXTENSION STRAIGTENING YOUR LEG AT THE HIP JOINT GLUTEUS MAXIMUS ILIOPSOAS JOINTS Movement of the skeleton is helped by joints. These are particularly helpful for sporting actions and activities. These can be separated into FOUR categories of joints. Ball and Socket Joint
Hinge Joint Pivot Joint Gliding Joint BALL AND SOCKET Two examples of this joint in the human body are the hip and shoulder joints. The rounded head of one bone fits into a cup-shaped socket of another. This joint allows the greatest range of movement. BALL AND SOCKET
HINGE JOINT Two examples of this type of joint include those found at the knee and elbow. 1) If you move your hand towards and away from you. 2) If you move your leg as if you were about to kick a ball. You will find that the movement of the joint can only occur in one way (direction) just like the hinge of a door!!
GLIDING JOINT In this type of joint, two surfaces which are flat rub against each other. These small bones can move over one another to increase flexibility of the hands for example. They are stopped from moving too far by strong ligaments. PIVOT JOINT This joint is made when one bone twists against another. These are found in the spine. They also allow the head to turn, raise and lower. Extremely important
for keeping balance and awareness. QUESTIONS On the skeleton identify the joint types labelled at 2, 3 and 5. (e.g. ball and socket, gliding, hinge, pivot) In the diagram to the right, which joint types do figures 1, 4 and 5 represent? (e.g. ball and socket, hinge etc.) BIOMECHANICS Biomechanics is the study of forces and their
effects on the human body during movement. We shall look at the following biomechanical principals: Inertia Action/reaction Projectile Motion Force Summation Levers Newtons Laws Of Motion Sir Isaac Newton studied the effect of the forces on movement and from his observations developed three laws of motion to explain the relationship between motion and applied force. 1st Law the law of Inertia
Every body will remain in a state of constant motion or rest unless acted on by a force. For a body to get moving the force has to be greater than the inertia acting upon it (inertia = a bodies tendency to remain at rest. The greater the mass of the body = greater the inertia). 2nd Law the law of Acceleration The acceleration of
an object is directly proportional to the force causing it, is in the same direction as the applied force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object. 3rd Law the law of Action/Reaction For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. FORCE SUMMATION Many skills performed in sport require maximum speed or force to be generated.
Some skills require maximum force to get a result, while others require maximum speed or velocity. In order to do this, an athlete needs to involve as many body parts as is technically possible. FORCE SUMMATION To gain maximum momentum, the force needs to be generated by: Using as many segments of the body as possible.
In the correct sequence, using large muscles first and then the smallest muscles last but fastest. With the correct timing. Through the greatest range of motion. EXAMPLE An athlete competing in a discuss competition would generate less force and therefore less horizontal distance, if only the arm and shoulder are used. Another competitor using force built up from using legs, hips, back, shoulder, arm and wrist in order would throw further.
SUMMATION OF FORCES Maximum speed is achieved by adding the speed of each segment and transferring this to the final part of the body. The speed of the last part of the body at the moment of contact or release will determine the velocity of the implement or projectile. When serving in tennis or hitting a tee shot in golf, at the end of the movement of body segments the accumulated speed should be transferred to the racquet or club to generate maximum speed or force. WORKING EXAMPLE OF FORCE SUMMATION The student is unable to produce enough
force to propel the basketball to the basket. A solution maybe the students awareness of force summation. Eg: When performing the basketball set shot it is important that the body parts move sequentially. Force summation is the ability to use all body segments involved to generate greater force or speed. Firstly the basketball player needs a stable base from which to execute their shot. The knees must flex then move to extension in order to start the movement. The muscles involved in this actions are the hamstrings and the quadriceps. The hamstrings initiate flexion followed by
the quadriceps being the prime movers for the knee extension. This movement continues with shoulder extension, elbow flexion and wrist extension. This moves to shoulder flexion, elbow extension and wrist flexion( prime movers included here? ) The end result is a more powerful force that can be transferred to the ball so that it travels as far as it can towards the rim. PROJECTILE MOTION FACTORS AFFECTING PROJECTILE MOTION Any object released into the air is termed a projectile.
The flight path of a projectile consists of a vertical and horizontal component. What does this mean? PRINCIPLES THAT AFFECT PROJECTILES Regardless of the type of object that is being released, or by what means it is being projected, they are all governed by the same principles. 1. 2.
3. 4. 5. 6. Gravity. Air resistance. Speed of release. Angle of release. Height of release. Spin. GRAVITY Gravity acts on a body to give it mass. The greater the weight of an object the greater the influence of gravity upon it.
What is the effect of gravity on a projectile? AIR RESISTANCE There are several key factors that bring air resistance into play. 1. The larger the surface area, the more air resistance will affect the object. 2. If the surface is rough then air resistance will be greater. 3. Speed. As speed increases, so does air resistance. (Think of the space shuttle) 4. Mass. The smaller the mass (lighter the object) the more air resistance will affect it. SPEED OF RELEASE Generally, the greater the speed of release,
the greater the distance gained. In many game situations this is a factor that must be under constant control. Can you give me an example? ANGLE OF RELEASE For any given speed of release, the optimum angle of release is always 45 degrees. Is this the case in many sports? Why? What would happen if the angle of release were to high for a given activity? Poor distance gained What would happen if the angle of release were too low for a given activity Poor flight time and possibly poor distance. HEIGHT OF RELEASE
The inter-relationship between height of release and angle of release is important to consider. The inter-relationship between height of release and angle of release is important to consider. The reason behind this can be summarized as follows As the height of release increases, the angle of release decreases. As the height of release decreases, the
angle of release increases. PROJECTILE JET PLANES Make a paper jet plane. When throwing jet plane, manipulate projectile variables to achieve maximum distance. E.g. throw from different heights standing, sitting on your knees, standing on a chair. Use fast and slow hand speeds. Try different angles of release. SPIN Consider a game of Tennis. What happens to the distance achieved with a topspin shot
compared to one with backspin? A topspin shot gives poorer distance compared to backspin. SOOOO.. This leads us to the following two principles with respect to projectiles and spin. 1. Range is decreased with topspin. 2. Range is increased with backspin. WHY? PRACTICAL EXAMPLE Question? How is this biomechanical principle applied to the overhead serve in volleyball. Where can I see this being
applied? ANSWER Firstly the speed or the force that the ball is struck/released at is important. The speed at which the ball is struck will determine how far the ball will travel. The striking force must be sufficient enough to allow the ball to cross the net but not enough to mean the ball goes out of play. The height of release also influences the horizontal distance covered, too high and the ball may go to far, too low and the ball may strike the net. The angle is also
important in conjunction with this. The angle and height of release must be judged correctly in order that the serve is successful. Spin can also be applied in order to make the ball dip after the netmaking it harder for teams to return. LEVERS A lever is used when you want to apply more force. Most levers have three clearly identified parts: 1. THE FULCRUM The pivot point around which the movement happens. In the body this is usually the joint. 2.THE LOAD The weight that needs to be moved. 3.THE FORCE The place where the force is applied. In the body
this is the effort produced by the muscles contracting . CLASSES OF LEVERS There are three classes of lever. Not surprisingly they are called: FIRST CLASS SECOND CLASS THIRD CLASS First class levers can help to either increase force or generate more speed depending on the position of the fulcrum. Second class levers allow more force
to be produced because the effort ,or force arm ,is longer than the resistance arm. Third class levers generate speed rather than force. LEVERS IN SPORT In many sports the equipment you use act as an extension of the levers in your body and helps to generate greater force or sped. Two good examples of levers used in sport can be seen in rowing or golf. REVISION ACTIVITY Copy down the following grid into your book/notes.
Using the pictorial sequence of the long jumper fill in the grid. FRAME A-B JOINT MOVEMENT AGONIST ANTAGONIST Left Elbow
Left Knee 1. 1. 1. 1. Right Shoulder 1. 2. 3.
1. 2. A-E Left & Right Shoulder 1. 2. 1. 2. A-C Right
Knee Right Ankle 1. 1. 1. 2. 1. A-E A-C F-G
REVISION ACTIVITY Use the sequence of the long jumper to fill in the grid. FRAME JOINT MOVEMENT AGONIST ANTAGONIST A-B Left Elbow
flexion biceps triceps A-D Left Knee flexion hamstrings quadriceps
A-C Right Shoulder extension Posterior deltoid Anterior deltoid Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi Trapezius A-E Left & Right Shoulder
abduction Trapezius Deltoid Latissimus dorsi Pectoralis major A-C Right Knee extension quadriceps
hamstrings F-G Right Ankle Plantar flexion soleus gastrocnemius Tibialis anterior A-B Right Hip
Flexion iliopsoas gluteals HOW ANATOMICAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PRINCIPLES ARE INTERRELATED Study the high jump action shown in the diagram and use it to help you list four biomechanical principles and related anatomical concepts which are important to the performance of this throw. On your own sheet of paper, explain in detail how the anatomical and biomechanical principles you have listed above are interrelated and how they contribute to the
performance of an effective high jump. Important points to consider: You should explain how the anatomical and biomechanical principles work together to achieve optimal performance for the high jump action pictured. Break the skill down into parts. Show how the key principles work together to produce the movement and the importance of each principle in performing an effective jump.
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