"Towards Building a Safer and Disaster Resilient India"
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY National Disaster Management Authority Lt Col Rahul Devrani Joint Advisor (Mitigation Projects and Procurement) National Disaster Management Authority Government of India NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Hazard Capacity Risk Vulnerability
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY HRVCA Process NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Risk Management Threat Recognition risk And vulnerability identification Resilience Building, Community participation Risk analysis and
assessment Disaster Risk Management Knowledge management Sustainable development Response, Recovery, Reconstruction, rehabilitation Strategic planning economic, political and
institutional support Considerations Risk control Options structural , non Structural, Cost/benefit analysis NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Overview of community based disaster management Community-Based Disaster
(CBDM) a initiates Management process involving sequential stages that can be operationalized to reduce disaster risk Processes of CBDM are guided by principles of subsidiary,
economies of scale, equity, heterogeneity, and public accountability The different stages
in CBDM are disaster/vulnerability risk assessment, risk reduction planning, early warning systems, post-disaster relief, and monitoring and evaluation participatory
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY What is CBDM and Its Components CBDM by its very nature demands a decentralized bottom-top approach with intensive, micro interventions at the local Panchayats, ward or village level with the intention of generating confidence, awareness, knowledge, partnership, and ownership for planning and rolling out local disaster management plans. Equity and inclusion of marginalized segments of the society and bringing the vulnerable groups to the center stage of planning and implementation of the CBDM have to be prioritized to make the programme participatory and inclusive. Disasters affects the entire community. However, persons with disability, women and children, underprivileged, older persons, and pregnant women need special attention at the program implementation level. Such rights and human dignity based inclusive ethos created by such programmes will empower communities and display resilience in times of crisis. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
Contd Capacity building and training of community volunteers is the mainstay of communitybased disaster management since they are the first responders. Converge with existing mainstream, institutional mechanisms, and social welfare delivery programmes to make it holistic, cost effective, multi-dimensional and community-centric Constitutional recognition of the importance of decentralization and devolution of powers and extends it to the arena of disaster management. These local bodies can be effective instruments in tackling disasters through a variety of
mechanisms such as: hazard, vulnerability and capacity assessments, disaster management planning, early warning system, relief distribution, providing shelter to the victims, medical assistance, etc. A response mechanism to save life, livelihood, livestock, and assets with available resources within the community which Leads to multi-pronged development interventions NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Components of CBDP Community Profile: This includes the community characteristics including its physical, administrative, geographic, demographic, socio economic, and infrastructure profile
Resource Inventory: Involves analyzing the local resources available within the community, which can be harnessed and enhanced for disaster preparedness and response. It shall include a listing of trained manpower, livelihood activities, health, education, water, sanitation, electricity, communications, and transport facilities. It shall also include information a local committee task forces and emergency directory Risk map through Community Maps: This shall include the Open spaces, Medical Facilities, Communication Facilities, Transportation Facilities, Water Facilities, Temporary Shelters, Sanitation Facilities, and Search and Rescue Operation facilities Future Mock drill: this is a list of dates when the periodic mock drill in the community will be conducted.
Final community plan: a one-page pamphlet detailing out the main CBDP components NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY PREPARATION AND PROCESS OF COMMUNITY-BASED MANAGEMENT PLANS FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE Identification of Community unit and preparation of Community Profile Preparation of
Community map showing vulnerable areas, resources, and evacuation routes Preparation of Taskforces, Committees, and Emergency Response Team The plan should be made by members of the
DISASTER NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Basic elements and features of CBDM Peoples participation - community members are the main actors and propellers; they also directly share in the benefits of disaster risk
reduction and development. priority for the most vulnerable groups, families, and people in the community in the urban areas the vulnerable sectors are generally the urban poor and informal sector while in the rural areas, these are the subsistence farmers, fisher folk and indigenous people; also vulnerable are the elderly, the differently abled, children and women (because of their care giving and social function roles) risk reduction measures are community-specific and are identified after an analysis of the communitys disaster risk (hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities and perceptions of disaster risk) existing capacities and coping mechanisms are recognized - CBDM builds upon and strengthens existing capacities and coping strategies the aim is to reduce vulnerabilities by strengthening capacities; the goal is building disaster resilient communities links disaster risk reduction with development - addresses vulnerable conditions and causes of vulnerabilities outsiders have supporting and facilitating role
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Research and Development Risk detectability was determined to be valuable in terms development project risk management Program Managers to assign detection scores to each development project risk retrospectively Inherent need for the development
and implementation of robust risk management frameworks in order for Research and Development projects to be successful The identification and quantification of a risk, as well as its impact, can have significant effects on the success of a development project NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Measuring Impact And Research in DM
Property Damage Critical Infrastructure Service Disruptions/Impact Environmental Damage Business/Financial Impact Psychosocial Impacts and Social impacts NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
What is Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)? Disaster risk reduction describes policies and practices to minimise (with a view to longer-term prevention) disaster losses. These involve interventions in: Mitigation: reducing the frequency, scale, intensity and impact of hazards. Preparedness: strengthening capacity of communities to respond to & recover from hazards, & of government, implementing partners to provide effective response. Advocacy: favourably influencing the social, political, economic and environmental issues that contribute to the causes and magnitude of impact of hazards. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY A natural hazard does not in itself cause a disaster....... An earthquake in Sahara Desert is not a
Disaster A disaster results when a hazard impacts on a vulnerable exposed and ill prepared community. Weather related hazards are becoming more frequent due to climate change killing more people overtime and costing more. Effects of climate change is the increase in both frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY What determines level of impact and vulnerability? The intensity and scale of a hazard and the vulnerability of individuals and communities determines the magnitude of impact The degree of vulnerability is defined by: social variables such as gender, age, health status, economic status, ethnicity etc. Existing socio-economic and political conditions mean
that disasters can lead to different outcomes Research reveals that disasters reinforce, perpetuate and increase gender inequality. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Cross cutting issues Empowering individuals and communities Gender mainstreaming Protection , Accountability and Grievance redressal Disability inclusive DRR Environment sensitive Multiple stake holder coordination Evaluation of recovery process codes and by laws Knowledge management and use of Technology DRR and CCA NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES of earthquake- safety NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Architectural Features of earthquake- safety The behaviour of a building during earthquakes depends critically on its overall shape, size and geometry, in addition to how the earthquake forces are carried to the ground If we have a poor configuration to start with, all the engineer can do is to provide a band-aid - improve a basically poor solution as best as he can. Conversely, if we start-off with a good configuration and reasonable framing system, even a poor engineer cannot harm its ultimate performance too
much. Simple Plan ::good Buildings with one of their overall sizes much larger or much smaller than the other two, do not perform well during earthquakes. Corners and Curves :: poor Simple plan shape buildings do well during earthquakes. Separation joints make complex
plans into simple plans NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT DESIGN Effect of Soil type on ground shaking Essential requirements in a Masonry building PLINTH BAND LINTEL BAND ROOF SLAB/ROOF BAND CORNER REINFORCEMENT AND REINFORCEMENT AROUND OPENINGS BRICK WORK IN CEMENT MORTAR OF 1:6
RESTRICTED OPENINGS PROPER FOUNDATIONS NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Retrofitting Essential due to structures not built as per codes
Guidelines available from BIS for RCC as well as for load bearing construction (IS 13935) There are approximately 12 crore buildings in seismic Zones III, IV and V. As it is not practically feasible or financially viable to retrofit all the existing buildings, these Guidelines recommend the structural safety audit and retrofitting of select lifeline structures and critical buildings. Such selection will be based on considerations such as the degree of risk, the potential loss of life and the estimated financial implications for each structure, especially in high-risk areas, i.e., in seismic Zones III, IV and V. Seismic retrofitting is required not only for the structures of buildings (including their foundations) but also for their non-structural components like building finishes and contents. Seismic retrofitting is a specialised technical task which needs to be handled by engineers proficient in this field, as any routine alteration, repair or maintenance carried out in a structure may not always guarantee an improvement in its seismic safety, and may in fact, increase its vulnerability.
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY PILLARS OF SIESMIC RETROFITTING Ensure the incorporation of earthquake-resistant design features for the construction of new structures. Facilitate selective strengthening and seismic retrofitting of existing critical and lifeline structures in earthquake-prone areas. Improve the compliance regime through appropriate regulation and enforcement. Improve the awareness and preparedness of all stakeholders. End extreme urban poverty, expand employment and productivity, and raise living standards, especially in slums. Strengthen the emergency response capability in earthquake-prone areas. Codes developed also to be updated and made consistent with the current state-ofthe-art techniques on earthquake-resistant design and construction. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY collapsed load bearing masonry buildings
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Damaged reinforced concrete frame buildings in Ahmedabad with open first storey and brick masonry infills. One wing of the Shikhara building detached itself from the building and collapsed & repaired The columns on one edge collapsed NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY One of the numerous RC frame multistory buildings at Ahmedabad that
withstood the earthquake shaking with only minor cracks NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Resilient Infrastructure will ensure Business continuity Enforcement Planned growth Mainstreaming Risk transfer and governance..
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Disaster risk reduction that delivers gender equality is a cost-effective win-win option for reducing vulnerability and sustaining the livelihoods of whole communities. Margareta Wahlstrm, UN Assistant Secretary-General for Disaster Risk Reduction NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IS A PROCESS OF CHANGE, IN WHICH EXPLOITATION OF RESOURCES, THE DIRECTION OF INVESTMENTS, THE ORIENTATION OF
TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT, AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE ARE ALL IN HARMONY AND ENHANCE BOTH CURRENT AND FUTURE POTENTIAL TO MEET HUMAN NEEDS AND ASPIRATIONS NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Thanks! Disclaimer : This PowerPoint has been ripped off from I dont know where and improved upon by yours truly! NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
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