R-067 Entry Point Screening - aiai.ed.ac.uk

R-067 Entry Point Screening - aiai.ed.ac.uk

A Knowledge-Based Tool for Planning of Military Operations: the Coalition Perspective Larry Ground Alexander Kott Ray Budd BBN Technologies Presented by Alice Mulvehill Outline Main thesis: knowledge-based planning tool can help a coalition staff Example: the CADET tool Advantages: Tasking and synchronization Estimates and computations New challenges:

Field maintenance of KB Collaboration User interfaces The Function of CADET Key Inputs: COA Statement (objectrepresented, 5-10 main activities) Friendly assets, strength, location Enemy COA, assets, strengths, location Environment (terrain, etc.) CADET CADET Application domains: US

Army Div, Bde operations, intel ops Intended users: Bde planning staff officers Role: COA analysis/ wargaming of the US Army MDMP Tool sponsors: Army CECOM, BCBLs, DARPA Key Outputs: Detailed Plan 200-500 activities all BOSs timing, synchronization assets allocated Estimates attrition consumption risk How CADET is Used

Using COA Entry tool, officer enters digitized operational concept: sketch and statement The staff reviews and modifies CADETs products OPORD, OPLAN, FRAGOs are generated and issued COA Tool COA Tool sends digitized COA sketch and statement to CADET CADET CADET generates detailed,

synchronized plan and estimates Experimental Results 0.25 0.2 0.15 CADET Human 0.1 0.05 0 0 2 4 6 8

10 12 Rigorous experimental comparison: CADETassisted vs. conventional Multiple cases, subject, judges Conclusions: comparable quality of products, dramatically faster Tasking and Synchronization A challenge: effective tasking, allocation, synchronization challenges staffs More so in coalition: multiple heterogeneous organizations, doctrines A tool can help:

serve as an unbiased "first-cut" accommodate nation-specific assets, doctrines reduce emotional factor plan and schedule heterogeneous assets Estimates and Computations attritio n A challenge: computations and estimations of time-space, resources, consumption, attrition More so in a coalition A tool can help: rapidly perform thousands of such computations

using nation-specific rules, formulae reduce arguments leave more time for higherlevel analysis logistics movement s animation Distributed Collaboration Must provide for: Multiple users integrated plans Partial plans by coalition members Capture, resolve inconsistencies Asynchronous

Geographically dispersed Field Maintenance of Knowledge Extreme demands on KB maintenance: In the field By nonprogrammers A partial answer: Simple templates No provisions for programming A 70% solution? A route should be

selected so that the unit moves through the destination area An objective area is required The unit Maneuver candidate unit advance criteria, and logic should BOS are be used to specified model the unit movement Given that the seize is supported, the domain expert

assesses that the unit performing this task will receive only 90% of the attrition of a normal engagement Unconventional Interfaces Conventional paradigms, e.g., sync. matrix dont work Coalition: cultural and training differences Alternatives: Animation? Cartoon sketches? Conclusions Tools like CADET can alleviate some

coalition planning challenges: Tasking and synchronization Estimates There is an experimental evidence of dramatic time savings and human-like quality But such tools also exacerbate some coalition challenges:

Knowledge maintenance Collaboration User Interfaces BACKUP SLIDES Technical Underpinnings Simple concept of user operation, assumes literally no training; Tightly interleaved planning and scheduling, routing, attrition and consumption calculations; Computationally inexpensive algorithms trade optimality for speed, almost instantaneous; Interleaved adversarial planning via the actionreaction-counteraction paradigm; Rigorous separation of problem solving components from user interaction; Extensive use of XML for simple, inexpensive integration heterogeneous systems

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