Ramping Up Math Skills:

Ramping Up Math Skills:

Ramping Up Math Skills: Motivation through Friendly Competition 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 1 4 Miss. Sarah Ramp 3rd Grade Warner Elementary 1 Setting the Scene 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Third grade is when students start learning multiplication and division 3rd Grade Math GLCE N.FL.03.11: Find products fluently up to 10 x 10 Class had Times Club already set up, but the majority of students were not passing and moving up Clubs 2 1 4 2 The Problem 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 The students not knowing their multiplication facts was causing math to take longer than it should have: 2 1 Spending more time on problems Class time was being used to wait for them to make

calculations instead of focusing on the new processes and methods Students were get problems wrong because of calculation errors 4 3 The Solution Motivate them to learn their multiplication facts! 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 But how?? Bribery? Rewards? Candy? 4 Trinkets? Competition! 2 1 Punishment? 4 Research on Games and Competition Competition has a negative affect: 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 A positive classroom environment of safety and security may be spoiled Competition belongs on the athletic field, but not in the classroom. (Self, N.) Competition is a recipe for hostility. (Kohn) Competition is to self-esteem as sugar is to teeth (Kohn) Competition encourages cheating and causes some students to give up before even trying because they feel

hopeless at being able to win. (Self, N.) 2 1 4 5 Research on Games and Competition More negative affects: 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 The best amount of competition for children is none at all, and the very phrase healthy competition is actually a contradiction in terms. (Kohn) some things are inherently destructive. Competition, which simply means that one person can succeed only if others fail, is one of those things. It's always unnecessary and inappropriate at school, at play, and at home. (Kohn) 2 1 4 6 Research on Competition and Games Competition has positive effects: 0011 0010 1010results 1101 0001 0100 1011 the suggesting that competitive games lead to negative outcomes might only be true in contexts characterized by already high levels of competition First, competition and aggression are not synonymous Second, cooperation is a prerequisite to

competitionin other words, children need to cooperate in order to compete. (Zan) In the classroom, winning is not predicated on someone else losing. Students can achieve success without others failing, or students can fail regardless of how well [others do]. (Williamson) Through toys, games, role plays, and imaginative use of equipment and materials, children develop physically, intellectually, linguistically, emotionally, and socially. (Rivera) Games help children develop self-control and social skills as well as promote taking turns, strategic thinking, and problem solving. (Rivera) 2 1 4 7 Research on Competition and Games More positive effects: 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Through games and activities, a skilled teacher can introduce something unknown to a hesitant learner and allow the student to practice until mastery is achieved. Structured classroom play can appeal to all styles of learners: visual, aural, and kinesthetic Play can enliven that which seems uninteresting, add humor, and infuse creativity into rigid and dry topics. (Rivera) There is no doubt that one way to generate childrens interest in mathematics and science is through their favorite activities or games, because instinctively, kids crate games to help make sense of the world around them (Williamson) Research has shown that some group games are excellent vehicles for promoting intellectual reasoning, especially in the area of mathematics. (Kamii) 2 1

4 8 Research on Competition and Games Instead of competition: 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Change the focus of the activity to validate each students strengths as an individual and contributions as a team member Alleviate fears of failure, ridicule, disappointment, and embarrassment Celebrations of all instead of winnings for only a few Guide students to individual goals Have students compete against the clocknot each other (Self, N.) 2 1 4 9 Friendly Competition 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Played 5 different games over 3 weeks Created a bulletin board to visualize progress For every game: 2 1 4 Emphasized positive encouragement No tolerance policy of negativity Everyone could be a winner Main goal to improve math facts speed and accuracy

Predetermined time limit 10 Bingo Choices 0 9 36 81 1 16 49 100 4 25 64 11 Bingo Choices 0 1 9 16 36 49 81 100 4 25 64 49 16 64 100 1 4 9 81

36 12 Fact Swat 24 90 6 4 15 28 20 72 9 54 21 3612 0 7 1018 32 13 Around the World 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 1 4 14 Times War 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 1 4 15 Bus Stop 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2

1 4 16 Going for Gold Bulletin Board 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 1 4 17 Collected Data: Times Club 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 10 10 20 20 20 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

20 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 20 40 30 30 30 10 30 30 30 40 30 30 30 20 30 30 30 30 30 50 50 30 30 30 60 30 30 40 30 10 20 20 10

10 30 30 20 20 30 30 20 20 40 30 30 30 20 30 30 30 30 30 50 40 30 30 30 50 30 30 30 20 30 40 30 20 20 20 6 6 7

7 8 9 10 11 50 40 40 30 20 40 30 30 40 40 70 60 30 30 40 80 50 40 50 30 30 50 30 60 50 50 30 70 50 50 30 30 50 30

40 60 50 70 60 30 30 50 90 30 30 70 30 70 60 40 30 50 6 Students A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y

Passers 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 30 30 40 30 30 30 30 40 30 30 30

30 30 20 30 30 30 30 60 50 30 30 40 70 30 30 50 40 70 60 30 30 40 80 30 30 30 40 30 50 30 50 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 50 50

30 30 5 9 6 5 50 30 40 50 50 70 30 30 50 80 30 30 60 30 60 50 30 30 50 7 12 13 14 3-1 3-3 3-5 70 70 70 50 50 50 50 50 50 30 40 40 30 30 30 50 50 50 30 30 40 40 50 50 60 70 80 50 50 50 70 70 70 70 70 70 40 50 50

30 40 50 50 50 50 90 100 100 30 30 40 40 40 50 80 90 40 40 40 80 90 100 60 70 70 40 50 50 30 40 50 50 50 10 7 13 15 16 17 3-8 3-10 3-12 80 90 90 50 60 60 50 50 50 50 50 50 30 30 30 50 50 50 50 50 60 50 50 50 80 80 90 60 60 60 70 70 80 90 100 60 70 70 50 60 60 60 60 70 D10 D20 D20 50 50 50 50 50 50 100 D10 D10 50 50 50 D10 D10 D20 70 70 80 50 50 50 50 60 60 50 60 8 8 6

18 3-16 100 70 50 50 30 60 60 90 60 70 100 70 70 70 D30 50 50 D20 50 D30 80 50 60 60 13 19 3-18 D10 80 50 50 30 60 70 50 90 70 70 D10 70 80 80 D40

60 50 D30 50 D40 80 50 70 70 12 20 D20 80 60 50 30 60 70 60 90 70 70 D20 70 90 90 D50 60 60 D40 50 D50 80 50 80 80 9 21 22 D30 D40 80 80 70 70 50 50

30 30 60 60 80 60 100 100 70 70 70 70 D20 D30 80 90 100 D10 90 100 D60 60 70 60 70 D50 D60 50 50 D60 D70 80 80 50 50 80 80 80 90 18 11 4 23 D40 80 50 60 80 60 70 70 D30 90 D20 D10 D70 70 80 D60 50 D70 80 100

14 Overall 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Passers 20 201101 6 6 0001 7 50100 9 61011 5 7 0011 0010 1010 6 10 7 13 8 8 6 13 12 9 11 4 14 2 1 4 Before After Games Games Overall Average 6.333333 9.583333 % Increase from Games 51.3% 19 Overall 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Passers 20 201101 6 6 0001 7 50100 9 61011 5 7 0011 0010 1010

6 10 7 13 8 8 6 13 12 9 11 4 14 2 1 4 Before After Games Games Overall Average 6.333333 9.583333 % Increase from Games 51.3% 20 Individual 3-1 3-3 3-5 3-8 3-10 3-12 3-16 3-18 Student0010 1 2 1010 3 4 51101 6 70001 8 9 0100 10 11 Slope 0011 101112 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Slope C 10 20 30 30 30 30 30 40 50 50 50 3.17 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 60 70 70 K 10 20 30 40 50 50 60 70 70 70 70 5.17 70 70 70 N 10 20 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 0.00 30 40 50 50 60 60 70 80 90 100 D10 D20 7.21 Before Slope: 3.17 After Slope: 1.91

Minor Decline 1.91 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 0.00 2 1 4 21 Individual 3-1 3-3 3-5 3-8 3-10 3-12 3-16 3-18 Student0010 1 2 1010 3 4 51101 6 70001 8 9 0100 10 11 Slope 0011 101112 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Slope C 10 20 30 30 30 30 30 40 50 50 50 3.17 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 60 70 70 K 10 20 30 40 50 50 60 70 70 70 70 5.17 70 70 70 N 10 20 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 0.00 30 40 50 50 60 60 70 80 90 100 D10 D20 7.21 Before Slope: 5.17 After Slope: 0.00 Huge Decline 1.91 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 0.00 2

1 4 22 Individual 3-1 3-3 3-5 3-8 3-10 3-12 3-16 3-18 Student0010 1 2 1010 3 4 51101 6 70001 8 9 0100 10 11 Slope 0011 101112 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Slope C 10 20 30 30 30 30 30 40 50 50 50 3.17 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 60 70 70 K 10 20 30 40 50 50 60 70 70 70 70 5.17 70 70 70 N 10 20 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 0.00 30 40 50 50 60 60 70 80 90 100 D10 D20 7.21 Before Slope: 0.00 After Slope: 7.21 Huge Improvement! 1.91 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 0.00 2 1 4 23

Overall 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 t-Test Before Slope Mean = 2.489489028 After Slope Mean = 3.617198376 P(T<=t) one-tail = 0.041739231 Since 0.0417 is less than 0.05, we can be confident that the difference was not due to chance 2 1 4 24 Student Survey Going for Gold Bulletin Board 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 1. 2. 3. I enjoyed having the Going for GOLD bulletin board in the classroom. The Going for GOLD bulletin board motivated me to want to learn my multiplication facts. The Going for GOLD bulletin board motivated me to practice my multiplication facts at home. 19

3 3 2 1 16 3 4 12 5 Favorite Games: #1. Bus Stop #4. Times War #2. Around the World #5. Bingo #3. Fact Swat 6 8 25 Student Survey 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 BUS STOP 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I enjoyed playing Bus Stop. Bus Stop helped me learn my multiplication facts. Bus Stop helped me get faster at my

multiplication facts. Bus Stop motivated me to want to learn my multiplication facts. Bus Stop motivated me to practice my multiplication facts at home. 24 1 19 5 19 2 16 5 13 3 0 2 1 4 1 4 4 9 26 Student Survey 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 AROUND THE WORLD 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. I enjoyed playing Around the World. Around the World helped me learn my multiplication facts. Around the World helped me get faster at my multiplication facts. Around the World motivated me to want to learn my multiplication facts. Around the World motivated me to practice my multiplication facts at home. 21 4 18 6 18 4 15 5 11 7 0 2 1 4

1 3 5 7 27 Student Survey 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 FACT SWAT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I enjoyed playing Fact Swat. Fact Swat helped me learn my multiplication facts. Fact Swat helped me get faster at my multiplication facts. Fact Swat motivated me to want to learn my multiplication facts. Fact Swat motivated me to practice my multiplication facts at home. 21 1 12 9 14 8 13 7

12 4 3 2 1 4 4 3 5 9 28 Student Survey 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 TIMES WAR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I enjoyed playing Times War. Times War helped me learn my multiplication facts. Times War helped me get faster at my multiplication facts. Times War motivated me to want to learn my multiplication facts. Times War motivated me to practice my multiplication facts at home. 13

6 12 7 13 8 11 6 10 3 6 2 1 4 6 4 8 12 29 Student Survey 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 BINGO 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. I enjoyed playing Bingo. Bingo helped me learn my multiplication facts. Bingo helped me get faster at my multiplication facts. Bingo motivated me to want to learn my multiplication facts. Bingo motivated me to practice my multiplication facts at home. 10 8 11 6 8 8 10 7 9 7 6 2 1 4 7 8 5 8 30

Conclusion 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Friendly competition in the classroom did help the class with multiplication facts, in terms of both motivation and mastery. 2 1 4 However, a few students were not positively effected by the competition, so more investigating still needs to be done 31 Action Plan 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Continue to use all games except Bingo Play games less frequently 2 1 Use as rewards Use after disappointing Times Club tests 4 Continue updating Going for Gold bulletin board Continue to monitor student progress 32 Sources Self, Nancy S. Build a Positive Classroom Environment: Avoid Competition! Childhood Education 85.5 (2009): 306-I(4). General OneFile. Web. 23 Feb. 2010 Kohn, Against

Alfie Kohn. Web. 25 Feb. 0011 0010 Alfie. 1010 The 1101Case 0001 0100 Competition. 1011 2010. Coleman, James S. Academic Games and Learning. John Hopkins University. FirstSearch. Web. 23 Feb. 2010 Rivera, Miquela. The Powerful Effects of Play in a Childs Education. The Education Digest 75 no2 (2009). FirstSearch. Web 23 Feb. 2010 . Williamson, Keith M. and Lee Land, Beverly Butler, Hassan Ndahi. A Structured Framework for Using Games to Teach Mathematics and Science in K012 Classrooms. The Technology Teacher 64 no3 (2004): 15-18 N. FirstSearch. Web 23 Feb. 2010 Zan, Betty and Carolyn Hildebrandt. Cooperative and Competitive Games in Constructivist Classrooms. The Constructivist. Vol. 16, No. 1. University of Northern Iowa. Web. 23 Feb. 2010 < http://www.odu.edu/educ/act/journal/vol16no1/zan.pdf>. 2 1 4 33

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