Rate Effects in Hindi The phonological specification of ...
Speech rate effects in Hindi Eli Asikin-Garmager Who am I? PhD Linguistics student 1st (of 2) pre-dissertation research projects Research:
Languages of Southeast/East Asia, particularly Indonesia Language documentation Sounds systems Grammar (syntax) Broad nature of the project (1) (2) (3) (4) How are (certain types of) sounds produced by Hindi speakers? How do listeners perceive these sounds? How do speakers represent these sounds in their minds? How do certain perceptual cues change as a function of speech rate?
a simple English sentence Dan cant get Tom to buy Pats dog. Dan cant get Tom to buy Pats dog. Voiced Voiceless (Aspirate d) b p d t g k Stop (consonant) = is airflow completely stopped
momentarily? Voiced = are the vocal fold vibrating during production? Aspirated = is there a puff of air following the release of closure? Hindi: 4-way stop contrast Stop category 1 of 13 languages in a UCLA database of 451 languages with voiced aspirated stop consonants Voiceless Unaspirated Voiceless Aspirated Voiced, Voiced
Unaspirated Aspirated Bilabial pal pal bal take care of knife blade hair bal forehead Dental tal beat tal plate dal
knife Retroflex al postpone al al wood shop branch al shield Velar kan ear kan mine
gan bundle Place of articulati on (POA) dal lentil gan song Hindi Stops (Ladefoged & Johnson 2011:155) What is a spectrogram? Visual representation of speech
x-axis = time y-axis = frequency gray scale (darkness) = intensity waveform spectrogra m ta:p - voiceless, unaspirated short positive-lag VOT (+) VOT V O W E L Release of closure beginning of vowel
ta:b - voiceless, aspirated (+) VOT aspiration (puff of air) V O W E L Release of oral closure Beginning of vowel ba:l - voiced, unaspirated (-)VOT V O W E L Onset of voicing (stop closure) Release of oral closure
Beginning of vowel Lead & Lag Time ba:r - voiced, aspirated Lead Time (voicing) (-)VOT Lag Time (aspiration) (+)VOT V O W E L Onset of voicing Stop release Vowel onset
Methods Participants convenience sample 5 native Hindi speakers living in the US Materials 47 target words (randomized) (all POA, all stop categories),
word-initial, monosyllabic words with same vowel 3 speech rates (citation, slow, fast) 2 repetitions each citation = word list slow/fast = words embedded in a sentence distractor items Methods, cont Procedures
recordings made in sound booth in EPB each participant performed the same 3 tasks in the same order, (citation, slow, fast) taking a break between tasks recordings then output to Pratt - program used for analyzing waveforms & spectrograms Measurements (in milliseconds) word duration lead time (voicing/before release of closure) lag time (after release of closure/sometimes aspiration) Lead & Lag Time (dependent variables) ba:r - voiced, aspirated
Lead Time (voicing) (-)VOT Lag Time (aspiration) (+)VOT V O W E L Onset of voicing Stop release Vowel onset Methods
Variables Independent: speech rate (citation, slow, fast) Dependent: lead and lag times Primary (stats) questions Primary questions: 1. Was there a statistically significant difference in word duration for the three speech rates? 2. Were the effects found on lead and lag time statistically significant? 3. Question #1/2, but for each individual speaker --------------------
4. Were there any statistically significant differences for the stops based on place of articulation? 5. Were the lead/lag times statistically significant for the (4) different stop categories? Selected References Beckman, J. (2012). Privative laryngeal features and passive voicing: Evidence from Hindi. Paper presented at The Manchester Phonology Meeting, May 26. Beckman, J., Helgason, P., McMurray, B., & Ringen, C. (2011). Rate effects on Swedish VOT: Evidence for phonological overspecification. Journal of Phonetics, 39(1), 39-49. Berkson, K. H. (2012). Caputuring breathy voice: Durational measures of oral stops in Marathi. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, 33, 27-46. Boersma, P., & D. Weenink. (2014). Praat: doing phonetics by computer [Computer program]. Version 5.3.63, http://www.praat.org/ Davis, K. (1994). Stop voicing in Hindi. Journal of Phonetics, 22, 177-193. Dutta, I. (2007). Four-way stop contrasts in Hindi: An acoustic study of voicing, fundamental frequency and spectral tilt. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Kagaya, R. & Hirose, H. (1975). Fiberoptic electromyographic and acoustic analyses of Hindi stop
consonants. Annual Bulletin, Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, University of Tokyo, 9, 27-46. Kessinger, R. H., & Blumstein, S. E. (1997). Effects of speaking rate on voice-onset time in Thai, French, and English. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 143-168. Ladefoged, P., & Johnson, K. (2011). A course in phonetics (6th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth. Lisker, L., & Abramson, A. S. (1964). A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: Acoustical measurements. Word, 20, THANK YOU
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