Reconstruction - Loudoun County Public Schools

Reconstruction - Loudoun County Public Schools

RECONSTRUCTION Chapter 16 After the Civil War South is destroyed: Economically Physically Spiritually Major Questions: How could Union be restored? How would South be reintegrated?

How should Confederate states be treated? Who would control readmission? Would Confederate leaders be punished? What would happen to former slaves? Lincolns Plan 10% Plan (1863) When 10% of states citizens took loyalty oath and accepted emancipation, state could set up government Excluded from oath: Confederate government officials and officers (could apply for Presidential Pardon) Opposition Thaddeus Ben Wade Wade-Davis Bill

Passed July 1864 Each state ruled by military government 50% of eligible voters had to take oath State convention had to repeal secession and abolish slavery To earn voting rights would have to swear to 2nd iron-clad oath Lincoln vetoed Charles Stevens Sumner Radical Republicans Thought Lincolns plan was too lenient Lincolns Death Johnsons Plan Favored Lincolns moderate approach Created plan while congress out of session All

southerners who took oath would receive a pardon and amnesty with all property restored Could elect delegated to state convention Excluded Confederate officials and officers As well as, ex-confederates with 20,000+ in taxable property Way to purge aristocracy Consequences Johnson handed out pardon liberally (13,000) Dropped plan for punishment of treason All established governments by December 1865 Confederates elected to office/congress Some refused to ratify 13th amendment or repudiate debts Souths Black Codes

Black Codes Guaranteed basic rights Enforced segregation in public places Marry, own property, contracts, testify Prohibited interracial marriage, jury service by blacks, court testimony of blacks against whites Barred slaves from leaving former plantations Most didnt go into effect Union Army Freedmans Bureau

Thought of southern defiance Freedmans Bureau Created March 1865 Early Welfare agency Relief Rations Medical care Protect blacks rights as laborers

By Congress Also protected/ helped poor whites Military courts to settle disputes Greatest Success = Congress v. Johnson Conflict Radical Republicans Minority in congress Thaddeus Stevens Wants black suffrage and to delay readmission of Confederate states Conservative Republicans Minority

in congress Favored Johnsons plan Moderate Republicans Largest bloc in Congress Thought Johnsons plan too weak Didnt want black suffrage Supported two proposals: Senator Trumbull Invalidate black codes Bill to make blacks US citizens and ensure rights in court 1866 called Civil Rights Act Johnson vetoed, Congress over-rode Mid-term Elections 1866 Johnson

swing around the circle Appealed to whites Argued equal rights would = Africanized society Tried to attack Congress Republicans Accused Johnson as traitor Results: Overwhelmingly a Republican victory in both houses 14th Amendment, 1866 Proposed by joint committee on

reconstruction Clauses Citizens All persons born or naturalized in US No state could abridge blacks rights without due process Guaranteed suffrage by threatening republicans in Congress Disqualified those who supported Confederacy South had to be forced to deal with blacks fairly Congressional Reconstruction, 18661867 Radicals wanted:

Black suffrage Federal support for schools Confiscation of Confederate estates Period of military occupation of South Passed 1867; Reconstruction Act Johnson vetoed, congress passed over Invalidated state governments under Lincoln and Johnson 5 military districts, run by Union generals Enfranchised blacks Slowed readmittance of Confederate states No treason or confiscation of property Thaddeus Stevens wanted to take property and split into 40 acres and give to freedmen Didnt pass because of issues of property rights Impeachment Crisis, 18671868 March 1867

Congress passes two laws to limit presidential power Tenure of Office Act Couldnt remove civil officers without senate consent Barred Johnson from issuing military orders except through commanding general August 1867 Johnson suspended secretary of war Stanton Wants to replace with Grant Senate refused to approve Impeached him Trial March 1868: not guilty

Circus like atmosphere Election of 1868 Republican Ulysses S. Grant Famous Union General No political experience Democrat Horatio Seymour Gov. from NY Results Grant wins Mainly

due to 500,000 black votes Only won Pop vote by 300,000 15 Amendment th (3rd Reconstruction Amendment) Republicans NEEDED black voters support 1869: 15th amendment proposed loopholes: Did not guarantee office holding Did not prohibit voting restrictions Question of womens rights Two

groups: Boston American Womens Suffrage Association Julia Ward Howe, Lucy Stone New York National Woman Suffrage Association Stanton, Anthony More radical, wanted amendment Legislation: Declared a state could deny woman right to vote Minor v. Happersett (1875) Reconstruction Governments New Electorate Blacks held majority in Southern states base

of Republican party Southern Republicans Counterattacks Protect Carpetbaggers Scalawags non-slaves Republican Rule No state instituted land reform Ambitious public works at state levels

Created public school systems 1871 2nd Enforcement Act suspension of elections Black Officeholders= elite Literate, black voters Federal freedman Didnt act until states admitted to Union 1870 Enforcement Act 3rd Enforcement Act (KKK) Strengthened punishments Use of federal troops Suspension of habeas corpus

Impact of Emancipation Changes to life Waves of migration Sharecropping 44 millions acres in SC/GA Poor soil, no resources Unable to establish Family life Lacked $ and equipment

White didnt want to sell to blacks Legalize Planters wanted to preserve black labor force Urban movement Find family Freedmans Bureau unions Traditional roles Black Institutions Southern Homestead Act 1866

Black codes Labor contracts 1866 Growth of black churches work your way up Ministers Problems assumed political roles Black schools Bad harvests, price dropping Segregated = sharecropping

public schools Rejected integration Black universities Remained limited, underfunded Rents for share of crop Landowners still retained power Depression of 1873 Lots of debt Crop-Lien Economy Needed more localized network of credit Merchants sold supplies, equipment on credit

No collateral, used claimed on next crop Cycle of indebtedness Transformed southern agriculture Prevented crop diversification Cash crops Soil depletion, land erosion poverty New Concerns in the North, 1868-1876 Grantism War hero

Endorsed by Union Vets Passive President Plagued by scandals Rise of the Spoilsmen Roscoe Conklin, James Blaine Credit Mobilier Affair Whiskey Ring Boss Tweed Foreign policy Liberal Revolt

Republicans worried about election of 1872 Formed Liberal Republican Party Revolt Turning point in Recon. Split support for Reps. Liberal Attacked Johnson Sewards Folly 1867 $7.2 Million Dominican Republic unsuccessful Grantism, civil-service reform, high tariff policy, Bayonet rule in South

Nominated Grant Free trade, gold standard, supply/demand Horace Greely Democrats endorsed anything to beat Grant Worked himself to death Panic of 1873 Post-war industrial boom Consequences

Transcontinental railroad 1869 over speculation withdrawn after war Farmers wanted easy money Issue divided Rep. party 1873 costs outrun investments By Sept. couldnt meet obligations Banks shut down Panic Other banks shut down Stock market collapsed 5 yr depression

Industrialization issues now replaced sectionalism Currency Dispute Greenbacks Jay Cooke (Union Pacific) National Debt Public Credit Act 1869 (Sherman) Pay back war bonds in coin Swap for new ones 1872 gold coin 1875 Specie Resumption Act Politics

Democrats win house 1875 Greenback party 1876 No answer to money question Reconstruction and the Constitution Supreme Court Weakened northern support Ex Part Milligan 1866 Court would not support congressional laws to protect freedmans rights Special military courts to enact

Texas v. White 1869 states meaningless because union was indissoluble U.S. v Reese and U.S. v. Cruikshank 1875 Restoring Slaughterhouse Cases 1873 Chipped away at 14th amendment Over monopolies States could violate rights Enforcement Act 1870 Undercut effectiveness Consequences

Invalidated Civil Rights Act of 1875 KKK Act of 1875 End of Reconstruction Republicans in Retreat Grant reluctant to assert federal authority in state and local affairs 1870s idealism waned 1872: Amnesty Act Commercial and industrial interests more important 1874: Democrats win elections 1875 Radical Republicans disappeared

Reconstruction abandoned Redeeming the South Businessmen Equal accommodations in public places Poor enforced Old planter elite One goal: Oust

Last Civil Right Act of 1875 Industrialized New South Bourbons 1876-1877 Democrats gained momentum after Amnesty Acts Mobilized formerly apathetic white voters Divided party Republicans from office Used intimidation White leagues, Miss. plan Exodus movement Kansas Fever 1879 Election of 1876

Republican Rutherford B. Hayes moderate on southern policy, Home-rule Untainted by Grant Guaranteed civil and political rights for all Democrat Samuel Tilden Campaigned against fraud and waste Boss Both: Tweed Fiscal conservatives

Favored sound $ Decried corruption Election: Corrupt Challenged Tildens victory Electoral Commission 1877 Hayes Win, Democrats the House Compromise of 1877 Election cartoons Evaluating the Republican Record Accomplishments Liberalized state constitutions in South

Universal male suffrage Property rights for women Debt relief Promoted building of roads, bridges, railroads, and other internal improvements Est. state institutions such as hospitals, asylums State-supported school systems Failures Corruption Wasteful spending

Bribes/ kickbacks The North During Reconstruction Rise of the Spoilsmen Corruption in business and government Scandals Boss Tweed Stole $200 million from taxpayers in NY Battle between Tweed and Thomas Nast Arrested in 1871 Reconstruction Summary Reconstruction a

democrat experiment that didnt go far enough Congress did not promote freedmans independence through land reform Federal government neglected to back Congressional Reconstruction with military force Failure of government to fulfill its own goals Looking towards a new America

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