Refrigerants - Environmental Public Health Today

Refrigerants - Environmental Public Health Today

Madeline Angela Meyer, MSHA, MBA, CMPE, CCS-P, CPC Student, Ph.D. Public Health, Specializing in Epidemiology Walden University PUBH-8165-3 Instructor: Dr. Jeff Wu Summer term, 2009 MS ClipArt 1 Agenda Electronics; Changing the World Electronic Waste Stakeholders Legislative Solutions Public Stewardship

More to be done 2 Electronics; Changing the World According to the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA), Americans own approximately 24 electronic products per household. (CEA 2008) MS ClipArt 3 Changing the Worldcontinued PCs per capita in the U.S. topped 86% in 2008 and will reach 100% in 2013. (Computer Almanac 2009) Consumer Electronics Ownership & Utilization Characteristics, 1990 and 1997. Percent of households with: Electronic Equipment

1990 2007 Television 96% 98% Average number of sets per home 2.0 2.6 Share with Wired Cable Television 56% 62% Share with Video Cassette Recorders

69% 90% 82% 22% 74% Internet Access at Home 68% Broadband 51%

DVD Player Computer CEA/PricewaterhouseCoopers (2008). Innovation: US economic contribution of consumer electronics; A study of direct, indirect, and induced effects on employment and business activity. April 2008. A report prepared for the Consumer Electronics Association. Retrieved July 15, 2009 from: http://www.ce.org/PDF/CEA_Final_Report_20080401_Lo-Res.pdf 4 Source CEA 2008: Chart in Millions 5 Top 15 Countries In PCs In-Use Year-end 2008 PCs In-Use Share % (#M) 1. U.S. 264.1 22.19 2. China 98.67 8.29 3. Japan 86.22

7.24 4. Germany 61.96 5.21 5. UK 47.04 3.95 6. France 43.11 3.62 7. Russia 36.42 3.06 8. Italy 35.69 3.00 9. South Korea 34.87 2.93 10. Brazil 33.30 2.80 11. India 32.03

2.69 12. Canada 27.63 2.32 13. Mexico 19.13 1.61 14. Australia 17.01 1.43 15. Spain 16.71 1.40 Top 15 Total 853.9 71.70 Worldwide Total 1,190.1 100.0 PCs in Use MS ClipArt

Source: CEA 2009 6 Electronic Waste: Where did computer waste go prior to eClycling? Source: MS SmartArt (Meyer 2009) 7 Electronic Waste: End-of-life (EOL) Management not for landfill! MS Clip Art 8 Electronic Waste: Technology Turnover Rates 1991 Study, Projecting 2005 Parameter Values Lifetime of PC

5 years 1996 Study, Projecting 2005 Parameter Values Lifetime of PC 5 years % Obsolete Reused 10% % Obsolete Reused 45% % Obsolete Recycled 1% % Obsolete Recycled 5%

% Obsolete Stockpiled 80% % Obsolete Stockpiled 45% % Obsolete Landfilled 9% % Obsolete Landfilled 5% Lifetime of Reused PC 3 years Lifetime of Reused PC 3 years

% Reused Recycled NA % Reused Recycled 40% % Reused Stockpiled NA % Reused Stockpiled 50% % Reused Landfilled NA % Reused Landfilled 10%

Lifetime Stock 3 years Lifetime Stock 3 years % Stored Recycled NA % Stored Recycled 75% % Stored Landfilled 100% % Stored Landfilled 25% 9

2007 Parameter Values Lifetime of Reused PC 3 years % Reused Recycled 10% % Reused Stockpiled 75% % Reused Landfilled 15% Lifetime Stock 3 years % Stored Recycled

77% % Stored Landfilled 23% Actual: Technology Turnover Rates 2007 Source: EPA 2009 10 Electronic Waste: Sales, Recycling vs. Disposal Generated Generated Disposed Recycled Recycling Rate New ** *Computer Computers products 2007 Sales Recycling

vs. (million of (million of (million of (by weight) Disposal (millions of units) units) units) units) UNITS 69.9 205.5 157.3 48.2 18% *Computer products include CPUs, monitors, notebooks, keyboards, mice, and hard copy peripherals. (EPA 2009) **Generated New Computer Sales (Computer Industry Almanac 2009) 11 Electronic Waste: After 2005 12 Electronic Waste:

Effects of RecyclingStorage Estimated Number of Units in Storage as of 2007 Product Type Number (million units) Desktop computer Computer monitors 65.7 42.4 Portable computers (notebooks) 2.1 Televisions Hard copy peripherals Total 99.1 25.2 234.6

*EPA does not have information to estimate the number of cell phones currently in storage. (EPA 2007) 13 Who are the Stakeholders of eCycling? MS ClipArt 14 Stakeholders: Corporate Watchdogs

GrassRoots Recycling Network, http://www.grrn.org/ Basel Action Network, http://www.ban.org/ Clean Computer Campaign,SVTC, http://www.svtc.org Greenpeace, http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/ SACOM, http://sacom.hk/ SOMO; http://www.grn.com/trade/aa786262.html As You Sow, http://www.asyousow.org/ ICCR, http://www.iccr.org/ National Coalition for Recycling, http://www.nrc-recycle.org/ Competitive Enterprise Institute, http://cei.org/ 15 Stakeholders: EPA & Govt Environmental Protection Agency, eCycling: http://www.epa.gov/waste/conserve/materials/ ecycling/index.htm DOE & EPA, Federal/State/local government, private entities: http://www.energystar.gov/

US Govt Agencies Military facilities, www.drms.com Federal Agencies, State/Local Governments, Not-for Profit Agencies, Private Sector and Private Consumers, http://www.unicor.gov/recybusgrp/recyel ec.htm 16 Stakeholders: Computer Industry Dell Computers. Recycling: http://content.dell.com/us/en/corp/about-dell-r ecycling.aspx Hewlett Packard: http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/en vironment/recycling/product-recycling.html and others

17 Stakeholders: Recycling Vendors Business Recycling Vendors: Sunking Electronics, NY-Based firm: http://esunnking.com/ A-Z Recycling, a National company: http://www.spintradeexchange.com/computerrecycle.htm 18 Stakeholders: Educational Institutions & Partnerships Federal Agencies, local schools partnering in Computers for Learning program: http://computers.fed.gov/public/home.asp Corinthian Colleges, Inc.; Largest Post-

Secondary education organization in the country with over 130 schools: http://www.cci.edu/ Online Educators: Peers at Saint Leo University, Saint Leo, FL, DeVry University, Chicago, IL where I teach. 19 Legislative Solutions MS ClipArt 20 Legislative Solutions: Federal Laws At present, there is no Federal mandate to recycle electronic waste, it is left up to the States. However, there is a federal

law for recycling cathode ray tubes (CRTs). According to the EPA, many attempts to develop a Federal law initiated, but to date, no consensus on a Federal approach has been accomplished. (EPA 2009) 21 Legislative Solutions: Federal Laws

Export Requirements for Cathode Ray Tubes A cathode ray tube (CRT) is the glass video display component of an electronic device (usually a television or computer monitor). On July 28, 2006 EPA finalized the rule streamlining the management requirements for the recycling of used CRTs and glass removed from CRTs under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Export Requirements in the CRT Final Rule Used CRTs (Broken and Intact) Exported for Recycling Used CRTs exported for recycling must comply with requirements that are specified in detail in 40 CFR 261.39(a)(5). Below is a summary of these requirements. They are: Notify EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance (OECA) of an intended shipment 60 days before the shipment. Notification may cover exports extending over a 12-month or shorter period. Notification must include contact information about the exporter and recycler, and an alternate recycler. It must also include a description of the recycling, frequency and rate of export, means of transport, total quantity of CRTs, and information about transit countries. OECA will notify the receiving country and transit countries. When the receiving country consents in writing to the receipt of the CRTs, OECA will forward the consent to the exporter. The exporter may not ship the CRTs until he receives the consent. If the receiving country does not consent or withdraws a prior consent, EPA will notify the exporter in writing. Exporters must keep copies of notifications and consents for three years following receipt of the consent.

Consent is not required from transit countries, but EPA will notify the exporter of any responses from these countries. Companies approved to export CRTs for recycling CRT Glass Exported for Recycling Processed glass (i.e., CRT glass that has been sorted) is not subject to export requirements. Unsorted glass would be considered a broken CRT and would be subject to export requirements. Used Intact CRTs Exported for Reuse Persons who export used, intact CRTs for reuse must submit a one-time notification to the appropriate EPA Regional Import-Export Coordinator with contact information and a statement that they are exporting the CRTs for reuse (see 40 CFR 261.41). They must keep copies of normal business records demonstrating that each shipment will be reused. Records must be retained for three years. Companies exporting used intact CRTs for reuse Unused Intact CRTs Exported for Reuse or Recycling No regulatory requirements - these are considered commercial products or commercial chemical products being reclaimed. Top of Page 22 Legislative Solutions: EPA Standards EPA encourages reuse and recycling of used electronics, including those that test hazardous. , example CRTs. To facilitate more reuse and recycling of these

products, EPA has less stringent management requirements for products bound for reuse and recycling. 23 Legislative Solutions 24 Recycling Stewardship (Incentives) Businesses and Full-Circle eCycling Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Incentive and Award Systems Tipping Fee Surcharges Model Programs Advertising and Marketing Funding Systems 25

Good Personal Stewardship When purchasing a new computer, donate the old one (but make sure it is fully functional). Remove any personal information, confidential, or proprietary data and programs from the computer before eCycling it. Seek out organizations who use computers to learn from, or to train others, such as schools or the handicap. Make sure the equipment is reusable and it meets the standards and requirements of the donation organization, in other words, dont use the donation organization as your landfill. If the equipment is broke, and it is not cost effective to fix it for reuse, then properly eCycle it, i.e., dispose of it for parts, or dispose of it properly according to your state laws, or EPA standards, whichever are stricter.

26 More to be done Biodegradable Computers We now have biodegradable computers, i.e., the iameco. They are made with biodegradable wood panels drawn from waste products in the lumber and pulp industry. They are also energy efficient, using one third less energy than conventional computers. (iameco 2009) 27 Conclusions

Electronic utilization grew at a much faster rate than anticipated in earlier studies between 1990-2009. The EPA does not have mandated laws on eCycling to date because they have not been able to come to a consensus. As of 2009, 19 individual states have eCycling laws. For now, we all need to be good stewards and lead by example with the standards that are available. New, safer technologies are now available, such as the iameco biodegradable computer. 28 eCycle Sources EPA, Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2006. United States. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530F07 030, November 2007. Report: http://epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw06.pdf, and http://epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/06data.pdf Lorenz M. Hilty, (2005). Electronic wastean emerging risk? Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Volume 25, Issue 5, July 2005, Pages 431-435 doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2005.04.002 Kang, Hai-Yong and Schoenung, Julie M. (2005) Electronic waste recycling: A review of U.S. infrastructure and technology options. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, One Shields Avenue, 3118 Bainer Hall, Davis, CA 95616. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. Volume

45, Issue 4, December 2005, Pages 368-400. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2005.06.001 Nagurney, Anna and Toyasaki, Fuminori (2003) Reverse supply chain management and electronic waste recycling: a multitiered network equilibrium framework for e-cycling. Department of Finance and Operations Management, Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4930 doi:10.1016/j.tre.2003.12.001 Widmera, Rolf, Oswald-Krapfa, Heidi, Sinha-Khetriwalb, Deepali, Schnellmannc, Max and Bnia, Heinz (2005) Global perspectives on e-waste. aTechnology and Society Lab, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland, bA-502, Millennium Park, Akruti Niharika, N. S. Phadke Marg, Andheri, Mumbai-400069, India, cState Secretariat for Economic Affairs (seco), Economic Development Cooperation, Effingerstrasse 31, CH-3003 Berne, Switzerland. 29 References CEA/PricewaterhouseCoopers (2008). Innovation: US economic contribution of consumer electronics; A study of direct, indirect, and induced effects on employment and business activity. April 2008. A report prepared for the Consumer Electronics Association. Retrieved July 15, 2009 from: http://www.ce.org/PDF/CEA_Final_Report_20080401_Lo-Res.pdf CEA (2009) Digital America 2005 Contents. Retrieved July 15, 2009 from: http://www.ce.org/Press/CEA_Pubs/837.asp CMU (1991) Design Issues in Waste Avoidance, Carnegie Mellon University Department of Engineering and Public Policy, 1991. CMU, (1996) Disposition and End-of-Life Options for Personal Computers. Green Design Initiative Technical Report #97-10, Carnegie Mellon University July 7, 1997. Retrieved July 16, 2009 from: http://aix.meng.auth.gr/helcare/Papers/PCs-end%20of%20Life-NEWREPORT.PDF Computer Industry Almanac (2009) . PC in Use. Retrieved July 17, 2009 from: http://www.c-i-a.com/pr0109.htm CSRwire (2006) Computer Giant Dell Inc. Approved as a Ceres Company . Retrieved July 17, 2009 from: http://www.csrwire.com/press/press_release/23424-Computer-Giant-Dell-Inc-Approved-as-a-Ceres-Company

Hewlett Pakard (2009) Stakeholder Advisory Council. HP Global Citizenship Report . Retrieved July 17, 2009 from: http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/gcreport/globalcitizen/stakeholder/advisory.html National Recycling Infrastructure Clearinghouse. (NRIC) (2009) Current Electronics Recycling Laws in Effect. Retrieved July 17, 2009 from: http://www.ecyclingresource.org/ContentPage.aspx?Pageid=28&ParentID=0 EPA, Hazardous Waste Management System; Modification of the Hazardous Waste Program; Cathode Ray Tubes: [Federal Register: July 28, 2006 (Volume 71, Number 145)] Retrieved on July 17, 2009 from: http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-WASTE/2006/July/Day-28/f6490.htm Breslin, Vincent T. (1993) Degradation of starch-plastic composites in a municipal solid waste landfill . Journal of Polymers and the Environment . Issue Volume 1, Number 2 / April, 1993 . Pages 127-141. DOI 10.1007/BF01418206 Iameco. (2009) Biodegradable Computers. Retrieved July 17, 2009, from: http://www.iameco.com/index.cgi?D=48&C=0&P=0 30

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