Region 5 Enforcement Approach NACAA Enforcement and Compliance Workshop George Czerniak June 13, 2007 1 TARGETED INVESTIGATIONS Dont Try for Broad Coverage Dont Affirm Compliance High Likelihood of Violation Where Correction Will Result in Significant Emission Reduction Focus on Company, Sector, Rule 2 CASE DISTRIBUTION Referrals to DOJ in FY 2000
NSPS 10% TITLE V 2% SIP/FIP 39% PSD/NSR 33% AIR TOXICS (HAPS) 10% CFC 6% 3 CASE DISTRIBUTION Referrals to DOJ in FY 2003
PSD/NSR 7% AIR TOXICS (HAPS) 2% TITLE V SIP/FIP 2% 6% CFC 83% 4 CASE DISTRIBUTION Referrals to DOJ in FY 2006 SIP/FIP 24%
TITLE V 29% CFC 13% NSPS 7% PSD/NSR 6% AIR TOXICS (HAPS) 20% FESOP 1% 5 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT FROM FY 2006 CAA SETTLEMENTS
Replaced 1992 Water Wells Replaced 1989 Oleum Tower Pump Tank Replaced 1992 95%-99% H2SO4 Economizer Replaced 1989 Replaced 1992 Replaced 1986 Pump Tank
Control Room Oleum 11 ACID PRODUCTION Remedy Sulfuric Acid Plants Wet Gas Scrubber Double Contact Double Absorption System Capable of Meeting an Emissions Limit of 1.5 lbs/ton Mist Elimination System Capable of Meeting Sulfuric Acid Mist Emission Rates of 0.15 lbs/ton or less 12 ACID PRODUCTION Remedy (cont.)
Nitric Acid Plants Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction (NSCR), and/or Extended Absorption System Capable of Meeting NOx Emission Limits in the Range of 0.3 to 0.6 lbs/ton 13 ACID PRODUCTION Potential Environmental Results 120,000 TPY of SO2 30,000 TPY of NOx Current Status Two (2) Settlements 6 Sulfuric Acid Plants
Cement Iron and Steel Coal Fired Boilers Calcining Remedy SO2 (Scrubbers) NOx (SCR and SNCR) Controls Potential National Environmental Results 160,000 TPY SO2 and NOx Reductions Current Status One Global Negotiation in Progress, One On-going Case, Two Investigations 16 FLARING THEORY:
LESS SCRUTINY FOCUS ON OPACITY 17 FLARING Proper Operation Pilot flame must be present Sufficiently low exit velocity Smokeless operation Steam or air commensurate with organics Heat Content > (300 BTU/scf) 18 FLARING Regulations MACT General provisions 63.11(b) Polymers & Resins, HON, Pharmaceuticals, Refineries, etc.
NSPS General Provisions 60.18(b) SOCMI, Polymers, Refineries, etc. SIP State VOC reduction requirements State permit requirements (e.g. 300 BTU) 19 FLARING Violations Heat Content lower than 300 BTU/scf (63.11(b), 60.18(b)) Failure to use good air pollution control practices by steam addition in excess of design parameters (63.6(e), 60.11(d)) Specified by API and Flare Manufacturer Typically near 1 lb steam/1 lb gas Destruction Efficiency Specified in SIP (95%)
20 FLARING Remedy Heat Content (BTU/scf) Instrument Steam Addition Control Valve Natural Gas Addition Control Valve PLC So Heat Content Dictates Steam and Natural Gas Addition Rates Potential Environmental Benefits Increase In Destruction Efficiency at the Flare Less VOC and HAPs Emissions 21 FLARING Current Status Batch Chemical Plant in SW Ohio 300 BTU/scf and oversteaming violations NOV issued > 560 TPY excess emissions
Batch Chemical Plant in NW Ohio 300 BTU/scf and oversteaming violations NOV issued ~ 12 TPY excess emissions Batch Chemical Plant in SE Ohio $675,000 instrument upgrade for two flares in response to an information request < 5 TPY excess emissions 22 CEM THEORY: WRONG PERCEPTIONS 23 CEM 2 0%
541 30% >= 5% 27 CEM Remedy Continuous compliance Fixing causes of excess emissions/CEMS downtime so they don't happen again Injunctive relief (redesigned/new control technology to replace old/underdesigned controls) SEPS Current Status Seven Notices/Findings of Violation ~ 100 Facilities Being Reviewed 28
The commandment for a newborn son. Leviticus 12:1-3. 1 And . efei. spake. unto Moses, saying, 2 Speak unto the sons of Israel, saying, If a woman have conceived seed, and born a man child: then she shall be unclean...
Citologie. lichidelor. provenite. din . diferite. punctii: recoltareaacestorape EDTA , dacalichidul nu prezinta o populatiecelularabogata se centrifugheaza la 3000Rpm timp de 5 min si se recolteazasedimentul; acestase etaleazape lama si se executafrotiusau 'starfish'.
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Thesis Statement. This PowerPoint will discuss the signs, symptoms and complications of Neurofibromatosis, along with imagery methods used to diagnose and monitor the progression of the disease in hopes of finding a cure.
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