Region 5 Enforcement Approach - 4cleanair.org

Region 5 Enforcement Approach - 4cleanair.org

Region 5 Enforcement Approach NACAA Enforcement and Compliance Workshop George Czerniak June 13, 2007 1 TARGETED INVESTIGATIONS Dont Try for Broad Coverage Dont Affirm Compliance High Likelihood of Violation Where Correction Will Result in Significant Emission Reduction Focus on Company, Sector, Rule 2 CASE DISTRIBUTION Referrals to DOJ in FY 2000

NSPS 10% TITLE V 2% SIP/FIP 39% PSD/NSR 33% AIR TOXICS (HAPS) 10% CFC 6% 3 CASE DISTRIBUTION Referrals to DOJ in FY 2003

PSD/NSR 7% AIR TOXICS (HAPS) 2% TITLE V SIP/FIP 2% 6% CFC 83% 4 CASE DISTRIBUTION Referrals to DOJ in FY 2006 SIP/FIP 24%

TITLE V 29% CFC 13% NSPS 7% PSD/NSR 6% AIR TOXICS (HAPS) 20% FESOP 1% 5 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT FROM FY 2006 CAA SETTLEMENTS

Primary Environmental Benefit Emission Reductions (142,942,912 lbs/yr) 98,828,033 lbs/yr Sulfur Dioxide 13,628,951 lbs/yr Nitrogen Oxides 10,468,625 lbs/yr Volatile Organic Compounds 9,574,790 lbs/yr Carbon Monoxide 6,946,758 lbs/yr Carbon Dioxide 2,326,870 lbs/yr PM10 /Particulate Matter 1,158,218 lbs/yr Hazardous Air Pollutants 8,588 lbs/yr Chlorofluorocarbons 2,079 lbs/yr Lead

Federal Penalties Assessed - $4,512,447 6 PORTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT IN SUPPLEMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS SEP Emission Reductions (11,667,767 lbs/yr) 6,946,758 lbs/yr Carbon Dioxide 4,071,210 lbs/yr Carbon Monoxide 240,033 lbs/yr Sulfur Dioxide 233,398 lbs/yr Hazardous Air Pollutants 130,748 lbs/yr PM10 /Particulate Matter 26,951 lbs/yr Nitrogen Oxides 15,425 lbs/yr Volatile Organic Compounds 2,079 lbs/yr Lead 1,165 lbs/yr Chlorofluorocarbons

7 TARGETING APPROACH Theory Theory of of Violation Violation Develop Develop Expertise Expertise Work Work Through Through Company, Company, Sector, Sector, Rule Rule 8 TARGETING EXAMPLES

9 ACID PRODUCTION THEORY: NSR 10 ACID PRODUCTION PLANT DIAGRAM Replaced 1992 Replaced 1996 Sulfur Controler Sulfur Air Blower Drying Tower Air

Waste Heat Boiler Sulfur Burner Replaced 1989 Replaced 1985 Replaced 1989 Steam Turbine Pump Tank Converter Replaced 1993

93% Acid Replaced 1992 Stack Replaced 1992 Waste Heat Boiler Demister Replaced 1994 Absorbing Tower Replaced 1986 Absorbing Tower Cooler CEM Waste Water Discharge

Replaced 1992 Water Wells Replaced 1989 Oleum Tower Pump Tank Replaced 1992 95%-99% H2SO4 Economizer Replaced 1989 Replaced 1992 Replaced 1986 Pump Tank

Control Room Oleum 11 ACID PRODUCTION Remedy Sulfuric Acid Plants Wet Gas Scrubber Double Contact Double Absorption System Capable of Meeting an Emissions Limit of 1.5 lbs/ton Mist Elimination System Capable of Meeting Sulfuric Acid Mist Emission Rates of 0.15 lbs/ton or less 12 ACID PRODUCTION Remedy (cont.)

Nitric Acid Plants Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction (NSCR), and/or Extended Absorption System Capable of Meeting NOx Emission Limits in the Range of 0.3 to 0.6 lbs/ton 13 ACID PRODUCTION Potential Environmental Results 120,000 TPY of SO2 30,000 TPY of NOx Current Status Two (2) Settlements 6 Sulfuric Acid Plants

1 Nitric Acid Plant Reductions: 19,000 TPY SO2 200 TPY NOx Sulfuric Acid Mist Reductions Settlement discussions continue with others 14 PETROLEUM COKE THEORY: NSR 15 PETROLEUM COKE Affected Sectors

Cement Iron and Steel Coal Fired Boilers Calcining Remedy SO2 (Scrubbers) NOx (SCR and SNCR) Controls Potential National Environmental Results 160,000 TPY SO2 and NOx Reductions Current Status One Global Negotiation in Progress, One On-going Case, Two Investigations 16 FLARING THEORY:

LESS SCRUTINY FOCUS ON OPACITY 17 FLARING Proper Operation Pilot flame must be present Sufficiently low exit velocity Smokeless operation Steam or air commensurate with organics Heat Content > (300 BTU/scf) 18 FLARING Regulations MACT General provisions 63.11(b) Polymers & Resins, HON, Pharmaceuticals, Refineries, etc.

NSPS General Provisions 60.18(b) SOCMI, Polymers, Refineries, etc. SIP State VOC reduction requirements State permit requirements (e.g. 300 BTU) 19 FLARING Violations Heat Content lower than 300 BTU/scf (63.11(b), 60.18(b)) Failure to use good air pollution control practices by steam addition in excess of design parameters (63.6(e), 60.11(d)) Specified by API and Flare Manufacturer Typically near 1 lb steam/1 lb gas Destruction Efficiency Specified in SIP (95%)

20 FLARING Remedy Heat Content (BTU/scf) Instrument Steam Addition Control Valve Natural Gas Addition Control Valve PLC So Heat Content Dictates Steam and Natural Gas Addition Rates Potential Environmental Benefits Increase In Destruction Efficiency at the Flare Less VOC and HAPs Emissions 21 FLARING Current Status Batch Chemical Plant in SW Ohio 300 BTU/scf and oversteaming violations NOV issued > 560 TPY excess emissions

Batch Chemical Plant in NW Ohio 300 BTU/scf and oversteaming violations NOV issued ~ 12 TPY excess emissions Batch Chemical Plant in SE Ohio $675,000 instrument upgrade for two flares in response to an information request < 5 TPY excess emissions 22 CEM THEORY: WRONG PERCEPTIONS 23 CEM 2 0%

Region 5 Percent Non-Exempt Excess Emissions (%) 2004-2005, SO2 5 3 1% Utilities 9 0% 1 1% 0% 3 0% 8 3 1%

0% 27 No Exceedances 5% 0.01 - 0.19% 0.2 - 0.39% 0.4 - 0.59% 0.6 - 0.79% 0.8 - 0.99% 1 - 1.99% 2 - 2.99% 3 - 4.99% >= 5% 638 92% 24

CEM Region 5 Percent Non-Exempt Excess Emissions (%) 2004-2005, Opacity Utilities 136 9% 33 2% 27 2% 70 5% 26 2% 12 1%

3 0% No Exceedances 0.01 - 0.19% 451 30% 0.2 - 0.39% 0.4 - 0.59% 0.6 - 0.79% 0.8 - 0.99% 1 - 1.99% 158 11% 2 - 2.99% 3 - 4.99% >= 5% 566

38% 25 CEM Region 5 Percent Non-Exempt Excess Emissions (%) 2004-2005, SO2 Non-Utilities 6 11 2% 6 1% 6 1% 1% 3 1%

13 3 3% 1% 2 0% 7 1% No Exceedances 0.01 - 0.19% 0.2 - 0.39% 0.4 - 0.59% 0.6 - 0.79% 0.8 - 0.99% 1 - 1.99% 2 - 2.99% 3 - 4.99% 445 89% >= 5%

26 CEM Region 5 Percent Non-Exempt Excess Emissions (%) 2004-2005, Opacity Non-Utilities 58 3% 134 7% 26 1% 27 1% 56 3%

22 1% 24 1% 30 2% 924 51% No Exceedances 0.01 - 0.19% 0.2 - 0.39% 0.4 - 0.59% 0.6 - 0.79% 0.8 - 0.99% 1 - 1.99% 2 - 2.99% 3 - 4.99%

541 30% >= 5% 27 CEM Remedy Continuous compliance Fixing causes of excess emissions/CEMS downtime so they don't happen again Injunctive relief (redesigned/new control technology to replace old/underdesigned controls) SEPS Current Status Seven Notices/Findings of Violation ~ 100 Facilities Being Reviewed 28

QUESTIONS 29

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