Warmup How many stars are in our solar system? What shape is our orbit around the sun? RELATIVE MOTION OF
1.1.1d EARTH IN SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun-Earth-Moon System The Sun-Earth-Moon System The relationships between the Sun, Moon, and Earth
are important to us in many ways. The Sun provides light and warmth, and it is the source of most of the energy that fuels our society. The Moon raises tides in our oceans and illuminates our sky with its monthly cycle of phases. Every society from ancient times to the present has based its calendar and its timekeeping system on the apparent motions of the Sun and Moon. Daily Motions
Earths Rotation The length of a day as we observe it is a little longer than the time it takes Earth to rotate once on its axis. Our timekeeping system is based on the solar day, which is the time period from one sunrise or sunset to the next. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pLl8sDZRSYg&feat ure=related The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Annual Motions The annual changes in length of days and temperature are the result of Earths orbital motion about the Sun. The ecliptic is the plane which Earth orbits about the Sun. All planets on an Ecliptic
iPad example! Why does the Earth spin? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQxeutcYP6I The Sun-Earth-Moon System Annual Motions
The Effects of Earths Tilt Earths axis is tilted relative to the ecliptic at approximately 23.5. As Earth orbits the Sun, the orientation of Earths axis remains fixed in space. At one point, the northern hemisphere of Earth is tilted toward the Sun, while six months later it is tipped away from the Sun. As a result of the tilt of Earths axis and Earths motion around the Sun, the Sun is at a higher altitude in the
sky during summer than in the winter. Seasons The Sun-Earth-Moon System Annual Motions The Effects of Earths Tilt Altitude is measured in degrees from the observers horizon to the object. There are 90 degrees from the
horizon to the point directly overhead, called the zenith of the observer. The Sun-Earth-Moon System Annual Motions Solstices As Earth moves from position 1, through position 2, to position 3, the altitude of the Sun decreases in the
northern hemisphere. Once Earth is at position 3, the Suns altitude starts to increase as Earth moves through position 4 and back to position 1. The Sun-Earth-Moon System
Annual Motions Solstices The summer solstice occurs around June 21 each year when the Sun is directly overhead at the Tropic of Cancer, which is at 23.5 N. The summer solstice corresponds to the Suns maximum altitude in the sky in the northern hemisphere.
Summer Solstice The Sun-Earth-Moon System Annual Motions The winter solstice occurs around December 21 each year when the Sun is directly overhead at the Tropic of Capricorn which is at 23.5 S. The winter solstice corresponds to the Suns lowest altitude in the sky in the northern hemisphere.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System Annual Motions Equinoxes When the Sun is directly overhead at the equator, both hemispheres receive equal amounts of sunlight. The autumnal equinox occurs around September 21, halfway between the summer and the winter solstices
when the Sun is directly over the equator. The Sun-Earth-Moon System Annual Motions Equinoxes The vernal equinox occurs around March 21, halfway between the winter and the summer solstices when the Sun is directly over the equator.
For an observer at the Tropic of Cancer or Tropic of Capricorn, the Sun is 23.5 from the point directly overhead during the equinoxes. The Sun-Earth-Moon System Annual Motions Equinoxes For a person standing at the x at 23.5 N, the Sun would appear in these positions on the winter solstice, the
vernal equinox, and the summer solstice. On the autumnal equinox, the Sun would be at the same altitude as on the vernal equinox. The Sun-Earth-Moon System Phases of the Moon The sequential changes in the appearance of the Moon are called lunar phases.
A new moon occurs when the Moon is between Earth and the Sun and we cannot see the Moon because the sunlit side is facing away from us. As the Moon moves along in its orbit, the amount of reflected sunlight that we can see increases until we are able to see the entire sunlit side of the Moon, known as a full moon. Once a full moon is reached, the portion of the sunlit side that we see begins to decrease as the Moon moves back toward the new-moon position.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System Phases of the Moon Synchronous Rotation Synchronous rotation is the state at which orbital and rotational periods are equal. As the Moon orbits Earth, the same side faces Earth at all times because the Moon has a synchronous rotation, spinning exactly once each time it goes
around Earth. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Miv0n0kji3c The Sun-Earth-Moon System Motions of the Moon The length of time it takes for the Moon to go through a complete cycle of phases is called a lunar month.
The length of a lunar month is about 29.5 days, which is longer than the 27.3 days it takes for one revolution, or orbit, around Earth. The Moon also rises and sets 50 minutes later each day because the Moon has moved 13 in its orbit over a 24-hour period, and Earth has to turn an additional 13 for the Moon to rise.
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