RELIGION IN AUSTRALIA POST 1945 HOW IS IT ASSESSED? 10 Multiple Choice questions (10 marks) 1 x Short Answer Question (5 marks) TOTAL = 15 MARKS SYLLABUS OUTCOMES Contemporary Aboriginal Spiritualities Discuss how Aboriginal spirituality is determined by the Dreaming kinship ceremonial life obligations to land and people discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to: separation from the land separation from kinship groups the Stolen Generations Outline the importance of the following for the Land Rights movement: Native Title Mabo Wik Analyse the importance of the Dreaming for the Land Rights movement SYLLABUS OUTCOMES Religious Expression in Australia 1945 to present Outline the changing patterns of adherence from 1945 to present using census data Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to: Christianity as the major religious tradition immigration
denominational switching rise of New Age religions secularism Describe the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia The National Council of Churches NSW Ecumenical Council Evaluate the importance of interfaith dialogue in multi-faith Australia Examine the relationship between Aboriginal spiritualities and religious traditions in the process of Reconciliation ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 1 Discuss how Aboriginal spirituality is determined by the Dreaming kinship ceremonial life obligations to land and people ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 1 KINSHIP Kinship refers to the interconnectedness of the people and environment Family is understood differently than our contemporary, Western society
Each member of the clan played an important role and part in the daily living Kinship systems determine these roles, as well as rules for marriage and other relationships Dreaming determines these relationships ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 1 CEREMONIAL LIFE Ritual and artistic expression of the Dreaming Through these, the Dreaming is understood and lived Include: dance, ceremonies, music, paintings, initiation (and other) rites ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 1 OBLIGATIONS TO LAND AND PEOPLE
The Dreaming is inextricably connected to the land Cannot separate their religion from their very specific land Symbiotic relationship between the people and the land ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 2 discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to: separation from the land separation from kinship groups the Stolen Generations ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 2 CONSIDER: Various government policies systemically contributed to the destruction of Aboriginal spirituality Half-cast children were taken from their families as part
of the Stolen Generation. Missions were set up, run by government and church organisations. Children in these missions were not allowed to speak their language, and were assimilated into White culture Aboriginal people were only given citizenship and voting rights mid-20th Century Many First Nations people today are still living with the direct effect of some of these policies ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 2 CONSIDER: With this much disruption and systemic oppression, Aboriginal spirituality (language, culture, knowledge) has been almost entirely wiped out With dispossession came the destruction of the kinship system, resulting in the loss of almost all information. Remember, theirs was predominantly an oral tradition ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 3 Outline the importance of the following for the Land Rights movement: Native Title Mabo Wik ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 3
Land Rights Movement The movement towards official recognition of ownership of land by our First Nations people Dates back to mid 1900s Mabo (1992) High Court decision which ruled: Terra Nullius was incorrect Aboriginal people can make claim to land in some cases Native Title Act (1993) Already established types of land ownership included Freehold Title (privately owned) and Crown Land (government owned). New type of land ownership: Native Title ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 3 Wik (1996) High Court decision which ruled: Native Title could be claimed on Crown land which was privately LEASED HOWEVER, should there be a conflict, and the tribunal unable to resolve it or reach a compromise, the lease holders rights outweighed the Native Title Claim Some other conditions
ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 4 Analyse the importance of the Dreaming for the Land Rights movement REMEMBER The Dreaming is inextricably connected to the land The stories, artworks and history refer to specific parts of the land and its features Without this land, the connection with the Dreaming is severed RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 1 Outline the changing patterns of adherence from 1945 to present using census data Religious Affiliation 1851 1901 1933
21.5 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 1 Things to consider: Overall drop in percentage of Christians Rise of secularism (No Religion and Not Stated increase) and 1971 change on census Size of the other religion traditions (what is the 2nd largest?) Shifts in the numbers of particular Christian groups RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to: Christianity as the major religious tradition immigration denominational switching rise of New Age religions secularism RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 CHRISTIANITY AS THE MAJOR RELIGIOUS TRADITION Things to consider: History of colonisation of Australia British and Irish Christians
Lack of recording of Indigenous beliefs as a legitimate religious tradition European settlement and immigration Catholic numbers rise why? RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 IMMIGRATION Things to consider: Post WWII 1945 onwards European immigrants Conflicts in 20th century include: Vietnam War (Catholic, Buddhist) 1960s Mid-East conflicts; Iraq (Muslim), Lebanon (Muslim, Orthodox & Catholic) 1970s-1990s Sudan 1990s-2000s And many others RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 DENOMINATIONAL SWITCHING Things to consider Denomination Switching between Christian churches only Increase in Catholic numbers denominational loyalty Increase in Pentecostal charismatic movement, popular among younger Christians; revolving door Decrease in Anglican less British immigrants Protestantism Shifts between the various Protestant denominations RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 RISE OF NEW AGE RELIGIONS Things to consider:
Individualistic society Disillusionment with traditional religious practices, especially Christianity General dissatisfaction with mainstream religions New Age includes: astrology, feng shui, transcendental meditation, paganism, etc RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 SECULARISM Things to consider: Huge advances in scientific understanding of the universe in the 20th century, continuing Increasing pluralism (diversity of beliefs and cultures) in Australia Increasing sense of irrelevance of religion in todays life No Religion increasing on census RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 3 Describe the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia The National Council of Churches NSW Ecumenical Council RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 3 ECUMENISM Things to Consider: Ecumenism movement towards unity amongst Christian denominations NOT intended as an amalgamation of churches Include theological agreements (beliefs)
Include joint practical activities making public statemtns on issues such as war, public morality, and other matters of social justice E.g. Uniting Church Formed in 1977 Joining of Presbyterian, Methodist and Congregationalist RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 3 National Council of Churches Australia NCCA formed after WWII Currently comprised of 15 member churches Aims to deepen relationships between member churches Aims to work, pray and grow together Initiatives include: Week of Prayer for Christian Unity RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 3 NSW Ecumenical Council Formed in 1982 16 churches throughout NSW and ACT Affiliated with NCCA
Aims to promote ecumenism through four major types of initiatives: Theology Local initiatives (grass roots level) Social justice activities Educational initiatives RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 4 Evaluate the importance of interfaith dialogue in multi-faith Australia RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 4 Things to consider: Inter-faith dialogue: formal discussions aiming to develop greater mutual understanding between different religious traditions Initiatives include: NSW Council of Christians and Jews Columban Centre for Christian-Muslim Relations Important because of nature of Australias pluralistic society, appreciation of diversity, breaking down of stereotypes (e.g. Muslims after 9/11) Aim to build relationships between different religions, to join together on issues of common
agreement, especially social justice RECONCILIATION Examine the relationship between Aboriginal spiritualities and religious traditions in the process of Reconciliation RECONCILIATION Some examples: Christianity ANTaR: Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation Formal apology to Stolen Generation by Pope John Paul II in 1998 Judaism Week of prayer for Reconciliation is held every year Executive Council of the Australian Jewry urged the Australian government to implement the recommendations made by the National inquiry into the separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children and their Families
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