Representing Relationships Chapter 4, Lesson 1 Real-World Link To achieve orbit, the space shuttle must travel at a rate of about 5 miles per second. The table shows the total distance d that the craft covers in certain periods of time t.

a. Write an algebraic expression for the distance in miles for any number of seconds t. 5t b. Describe the relationship in words. The distance is 5 times the number of seconds. Real-World Link To achieve orbit, the space shuttle must travel at a rate of about 5 miles per second. The table

shows the total distance d that the craft covers in certain periods of time t. c. Graph the ordered pairs. Describe the shape of the graph. Linear Equation An equation with a graph that makes a straight line. Can have more than one variable.

Example 1 Write an equation to find the number of liters in any number of quarts. Describe the relationship in words. The rate of change is 0.95. EQUATION: = 0.95q IN WORDS: The rate of change between quarts and

liters is 0.95. Example 2 About how many liters are in 8 quarts? EQUATION: = 0.95q = 0.95(8) = 7.6

There are about 7.6 liters in 8 quarts. Got it? 1 & 2 The total cost of tickets to the school play is shown in the table. a. Write an equation to find the total cost of any number of tickets. Describe the relationship in words. b. Use the equation to find the cost of 15 tickets.

Example 3 The total distance Marlon ran one week is shown by the graph. Write an equation to find the number of miles run y after any number of days x. 1. Find the rate of change. m= = 2.

Find the y-intercept. y = mx + b y = 3.5x + b 7 = 3.5(2) + b 0=b The slope is 3.5 and the yintercept is 0. The equation is y = 3.5x.

Example 4 Using the same equation in Example3, how many miles will Marion run after 2 weeks? y = 3.5x Let x by 14, since x is in days. y = 3.5(14) y = 49 Marion will run 49 miles in 2 weeks. Got it? The number of trees saved by recycling paper is shown.

a. Write an equation to find the total number of trees y that can be saved for any number of tons of paper x. b. Use the equation to find how many trees could be saved if 500 tons of paper are recycled.

Multiple Representations of Linear Equations Words: The number of trees is equal to 17 times the number of tons of paper. Equation: y = 17x Table: x 1 2

3 4 y 17 34 51 68 Graph: Example 5

Chloe completes in jump rope competitions. Her average rate is 225 jumps per minute. a. Write an equation to find the number of jumps in any of amount of minutes. j = 225m b. Make a table with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes. Graph the points. m 225 m

j 1 225(1 ) 225(2 ) 225(3 ) 225

2 3 450 675 Got it? Paul earns $7.50 an hour working at a grocery store. a. Write an equation the find the amount of money Paul earned m for any number of

hours h. b. Make a table to find the earnings if he works 5, 6, 7, and 8 hours. Graph the coordinate points. Be sure to complete the Guided Practice and Journal. Relations Chapter 4, Lesson 2

Relations: a set of ordered pairs Example 1 Express the relation {(2, 6), (-4, 8), (-3, 6), (0, 4)} as a table and a graph. State the domain and range. Domain: {-4, -3, 0, 2} Range: {-8, -4, 6) Got it? Express the relation {(-5, 2), (3, -1), (6, 2), (1,

7)} as a table and a graph. State the domain and range. Example 2 It cost $3 per hour to park at the Wild Wood Amusement Park. Make a table using x and y coordinates that represent the total cost for 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours.

Graph the ordered pairs. Got it? 2 A movie rental store charges $3.95 per movie rental. Make a table using x and y coordinates for the total cost of 1,2, 3, and 4 movies. Graph the ordered

pairs. Be sure to complete the Guided Practice and Journal. Functions Chapter 4, Lesson 3 Vocabulary Function: Where every domain (input) is matched up with

exactly one range (output) Example: m = 14p If m represent the amount of money you earn, and p is the number of pizzas you deliver. How much money will you make? Depends on how many pizzas you deliver. m = dependent p = independent Independen

t Variable Equation Dependent Variable number of downloads The equation c = 0.99n represents the total

cost c for n music downloads. cost number of hours The equation d = 4.5h represents the number of miles Amber can run in h hours.

number of mile number of goals The equation s = g + 3 represents the final score of games s after g goals in the final period.

final score Functions Example 1: Find f(-3) if f(x) = 2x + 1. f(x) = 2x + 1 f(-3) = 2(-3) + 1 f(-3) = -6 + 1 So, f(-3) = -5.

Function Tables: A way to organize the domain, range and rule on a table. Independent Variable = Domain Dependent Variable = Range Example 2: Choose four values for x and make a function table for f(x) = x + 5. Then state the domain and range.

Domain is {-2, -1, 0, 1} Range is {3, 4, 5, 6} Got it? 1 & 2 Choose four values for x to complete the function table for the function f(x) = x 7. Then state the domain and range. Example 3 There are approximately 770 peanuts in a jar of peanut butter. The total number of peanuts p(j) is a function of the number of jars of peanut butter j.

Identify the independent and dependent variable. Ask: How many peanuts p(j) are there? It depends So, p(j) or the number of peanuts are the dependent variable. Logic tells us that the number of jars is the independent variable. Example 4 There are approximately 770 peanuts in a jar of peanut butter. The total number of peanuts p(j) is a function of the number of jars of peanut

butter j. What values of the domain and range make sense for this situation? DOMAIN: Ask: positive or negative numbers, whole, decimals? only positive whole numbers RANGE: The range depends on the x-values, and since there are 770 peanuts in each jar, the range will be multiples of 770.

Example 4 There are approximately 770 peanuts in a jar of peanut butter. The total number of peanuts p(j) is a function of the number of jars of peanut butter j. Write a function to represent the total number of peanuts. p(j) = 770j Example 5 There are approximately 770 peanuts in a jar of

peanut butter. The total number of peanuts p(j) is a function of the number of jars of peanut butter j. How many peanuts are there in 7 jars of peanut butter? p(j) = 770j p(7) = 770(7) p(7) = 5,390 There will be 5,390 peanuts in 7 jars of peanut butter. The domain is the

set of numbers for the independent variable. The range is the set of numbers for the dependent variable. Got it? 3-5 A scrapbooking store is selling rubber stamps for $4.95 each. The total sales f(n) is a function of the number of rubber stamps n sold. a. Identify the independent and dependent

variable. b. What values of the domain and range make sense for this situation? c. Write a function equation to represent total sales. Determine the total cost of 5 stamps.

d. Be sure to complete the Guided Practice and Journal. Linear Functions Chapter 4, Lesson 4 Sometimes functions are written with two variables, x and y.

x represents the domain y represents the range Example 1 The school stores buys book covers for $2 each and notebooks for $1. Toni has $5 to spend. The function y = 5 2x represents this situation. Graph the function and interpret the points graphed. Chose values for x and substitute them to find y.

Graph the ordered pairs. 0 1 2 3 Toni has 4 options at the book store. 5 notebooks, 1 cover and 3 notebooks, or 2 covers and 1 notebook. Got it? 1

The farmers market sells apples for $2 per pound and pears for $1 per pound. Mallory has $10 to spend. The function y = 10 2x represents this situation. Graph this function and interpret the points. Example 2 Graph y = x + 2. Make a function table. Graph the ordered pairs.

Got it? 2 Graph these functions. a. y=x5 b. y = -2x Representing Functions Equation: y = x 1

Table: Words: the value of y is one less than the corresponding value of x. Graph: Linear Functions: a function where the graph is a line.

Example: y = mx + b Continuous vs. discrete data Continuous no space between data values Discrete have space between data values Example 3 Each person that enters the store receives a coupon for $5 off his or her entire purchase. a. b.

c. Write a function to y = 5x represent the total value of coupons given out. Make a function table for 5, 10, 15, and 20 and graph the points. Is the function continuous or discrete? Explain.

There can only be a whole number of customers, so the graph is discrete. x 5x y 5

5(5) 25 10 5(10) 50 15

5(15) 75 20 5(20) 100 Got it? 3

A store sells trail mix for $5.95 per pound. a. b. c. Write a function to represent the total cost of any number of pounds. Make a function table

for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 pounds and graph the points. Is the function continuous or discrete? Explain. x 1 2 3 4

5 5.95x y Make ordered pairs from the x-value and y-value. Then graph the coordinates and draw a line through,

IF the function is continuous. Be sure to complete the Guided Practice and Journal. Compare Properties of Functions Chapter 4, Lesson 5

Real-World Link Carlos and Stephanie are members to the science museum. Carloss members can be represented by the function c = 9.99. The cost of Stephanies membership is shown by Month Cost the table. s ($) a. Make a table to represent the cost of

Carloss membership. b. Describe the rate of change for each function. Carlos has a rate of 0, and Stephanie has a rate of 5. 1 5

2 10 3 15 4 20

Month s Cost ($) 1 9.99 2

9.99 3 9.99 4 9.99 Example 1

A zebras main predator is a lion. Lions can run at a speed of 53 feet per second over short distances. The graph shows the speed of a zebra. Compare their speeds. Lions rate of change = 53 Find the zebras rate of change The zebra has a faster rate than the lion. Got it? 1

A 2013 Ford Acura has a gas mileage of 21 miles per gallon. The gas mileage of a 2013 Audi is represented by this graph. Compare their gas mileage. Example 2 The function m = 140h, where m is the miles traveled in h hours, represents the speed of the first Japanese high speed train. The speed todays high speed train in China is shown by the table. a. Compare the functions yintercepts and rate of change. They both have the same yintercept: 0

The rate of change for Japan is 140. The rate of change for China is 217. Chinas high speed train is faster than Japans train. Example 2 The function m = 140h, where m is the miles traveled in h hours, represents the speed of the first Japanese high speed train. The speed todays high speed train

in China is shown by the table. b. If you ride each train for 5 hours, how far will you travel on each? Japan: y = 140h y = 140(5) y = 700 You will travel 700 miles on Japans train. You will travel

1,085 miles in 5 hours on the Chinese train. Got it? 2 The number of new movies Movie Madness receives can be represented by the function m = 7w + 2, where m represents the number of movies and w represents the number of weeks. The number of games Game Gallery receives is shown in the table. a. Compare the functions

y-intercept and rate of change. b. How many new movies will each store have in Week 6? Example 3 Angela and Ben each have a monthly cell phone bill. Angelas monthly bill is represented by y = 0.15x + 49, where x represents the amount of minutes and y represents the cost. Bens monthly cost is shown by the graph.

a. Compare the y-intercepts and rate of change. Angelas y-intercept is 49 and the rate of change is 0.15. Bens y-intercept is 60. Rate of change = So, Angela pays more per minute. Example 3 Angela and Ben each have a monthly cell phone

bill. Angelas monthly bill is represented by y = 0.15x + 49, where x represents the amount of minutes and y represents the cost. Bens monthly cost is shown by the graph. b. What will be the monthly cost for Angela and Ben for 200 minutes? Angela y = 0.15(200) + 49 y = 79 Angela will pay $79 for 200 minutes.

According to the graph, Ben will pay $80 for 200 minutes. Got it? 3 Mandy and Sarah each have a membership to the gym. Mandys membership is represented by the function y = 3x + 29, where x represents the hours with a trainer and y represents the cost. The cost of Sarahs membership is shown in the graph.

a. Compare the y-intercepts and rates of change. b. What will be the total cost for Mandy and Sarah if they each have 4 hours with a trainer? Example 4 Lorenas mother needs to rent a truck to move some furniture. The cost to rent a truck from two different companies are shown with a graph and table. Which company should she use if she wants to rent the truck for 40 miles? Rons

Rentals will charge $100 for 40 miles. Cross Town Movers: slope = 2 and y-intercept is 30 y = 0.5x + 30 It will cost $70 for 40 miles. Be sure to complete

the Guided Practice and Journal. Construct Functions Chapter 4, Lesson 6 Real-life Link Dylan is planning a birthday party at a skating rink. The rink charges a party fee plus an additional charge for each guest. a. Choose two points and find the

rate of change. (3, 59) and (5, 65) The rate of change is 3. b. Write a function to this situation. y = 3x + 50 c. Graph the ordered pairs and extend the line until you reach the y-axis. How much is the party fee? Example 1

A shoe store offers free points when you sign up for their rewards card. Then, for each pair of shoes purchased, you earn an additional number of points. The graph shows the total points earned for several pairs of shoes. Find and interpret the rate of change. You will earn 15 points for every pair of shoes you buy. Got it? 1

Meyer Music charges a yearly subscription fee plus a monthly fee. The total cost for different number of months, including the yearly fee, is shown by the graph. Find and interpret the rate of change and the initial value. Example 2 Joan has some photos in her photo album. Each week she plans to add 12 photos. Joan had 120 photos after 8 weeks. Assume the relationship is linear. Find and interpret the rate of change and initial value.

The phrase each week she adds 12 means the rate of change is 12. One of the points on the line is (8, 120) y = mx + b 120 = 12(8) + b 120 = 96 + b 24 = b The y-intercept is 24. So, the initial amount of photos is 24. Got it? 2 A zoo charges a rental fee plus $2 per hour for

strollers. The total cost of 5 hours is $13. Assume the relationship is linear. Find the interpret the rate of change and initial value. Example 3 The table shows how much money Ava has saved. Assume the relationship is linear. Find and interpret the rate of change and initial value. 1. Choose two points to find the rate of change. Ava saves $20 each

month. 2. Use slope-intercept form to find the initial value. y = mx + b 110 = 20(3) + b 50 = b Ava initially saved $50. Got it? The table shows the monthly cost of sending text messages. Assume the relationship is linear. Find and interpret the rate of change and

initial value. # of $ Cost (y) Messages (x) 5 10.50 6 10.60

7 10.70 Be sure to complete the Guided Practice and Journal. Linear and Nonlinear Functions

Chapter 4, Lesson 7 Real-World Link The table shows the approximate height and horizontal distance traveled by a football kicked at an angle of 30 with an initial velocity of 30 yards per second. a. Did the football travel the same height each half-second? No b. Did the football travel the same length each half-second?

Yes Real-World Link The table shows the approximate height and horizontal distance traveled by a football kicked at an angle of 30 with an initial velocity of 30 yards per second. c. Graph the ordered pairs (time, height) and (time, length). Example 1 Determine if each table represents a linear or

nonlinear function. Explain. a. As x increases by 2, y decreases by 15 each time. The table is predictable, so the function is linear. Example 1 Determine if each table represents a linear or nonlinear function. Explain. b.

As x increases by 3, y increases by different amounts each time. The rate of change is not constant. The function in nonlinear. Got it? 1 Determine whether each table represents a linear or nonlinear function. Explain. a. b. Example 2

Use the table to determine whether the minimum number of Calories a tiger cub should eat is linear function of its age in weeks. Find the rates. 1000 825 = 175 1185 1000 = 185 1320 1185 = 135 1420 1320 = 100 The rates of change are not consistent. The function in nonlinear. Got it? 2

Tickets at a school dance cost $5 per student. Are the ticket sales a linear or nonlinear function of the number of tickets sold. Explain. Example 3 A square has a side length of s inches. The area of the square is a function of the side length. Does this situation represents a linear or nonlinear function. Explain. Make a table to show the area of the square for side lengths of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 inches.

Example 3 A square has a side length of s inches. The area of the square is a function of the side length. Does this situation represents a linear or nonlinear function. Explain. Graph the function. Got it? 3 A square has a side length of s inches. The perimeter of the square is a function of the side

length. Does this situation represent a linear or nonlinear function. Explain. Be sure to complete the Guided Practice and Journal. Quadratic Functions Chapter 4, Lesson 8 A special type of nonlinear function is a quadratic

function. The greatest power on the variable is 2. Examples: y = x2 + 3x 5 y = 2x2 + 2x + 1 The graph is U-shaped, opening upward or downward. A function in which the greatest power of the variable is 2.

The graph is a straight line. Quadratic Functions The graph always opens downward. The graph of a quadratic function sometimes open

upward. Example 1 Graph y = x2. Example 2 Graph y = -x2 + 4. Got it? 1&2 Graph y = 6x2. Example 3

The function d = 4t2 represents the distance d in feet that a race car will travel over t seconds with a constant acceleration of 8 feet per second. Graph the function. Use the graph to find how much time it will take for the race car to travel 200 feet. Example 4 The function h = 0.66d2 represents the distance d in miles you can see from height of h feet. Graph this function. Then use the graph to estimate how far you can see from a hot air balloon 1,000

feet in the air. Distance cannot be negative, so use only positive numbers. Be sure to complete the Guided Practice and Journal. Qualitative Graphs Chapter 4, Lesson 9

Real-World Link Emily is downloading photos from her digital camera to her computer. The table shows the percent of photos downloaded for several seconds. a. During which period(s) of time did the percent downloaded not change? between 4 and 6 seconds and between 8 and 10 seconds b. During which period of

time did the percent downloaded change the most? between 6 and 8 seconds Real-World Link Emily is downloading photos from her digital camera to her computer. The table shows the percent of photos downloaded for several seconds. c. Graph and connect the

ordered pairs. Qualitative Graphs: Graphs used to represent situations that may not have numbers. Example 1 The graph displays the water level in a kiddy pool that has a drain. Describe the change in the water level over time. The water level increased at a constant

rate, then the water was turned off. After some time, the pool is drained at a constant rate until the water is gone. Got it? 1 The graph displays the revenue from a local clothing store. Describe the sales over time. Example 2 A tennis ball is dropped onto the floor. On each successive bounce, it rebounds to a

height less than its previous bounce height until it comes to rest on the floor. Sketch a qualitative graph. Draw the axis and label. Sketch the situation. Example 3 You swing on a swing. Sketch a qualitative graph to represent the situation. Draw and label the axes.

Sketch the shape. Got it? 3&4 A car is traveling at a constant speed. The car slows down steadily to come to rest at a stop light. Sketch a qualitative graph to represent the situation. Be sure to complete the Guided Practice and Journal.