Requirements to Materials for Manufacturing of Medical Products
REQUIREMENTS TO MATERIALS FOR MANUFACTURING OF MEDICAL PRODUCTS For manufacturing of medical tools, devices, equipment and so forth use set of materials: - Threw also their alloys; - Plastic weights; - Rubber; - Glass; - Ceramics; - A skin and its substitutes;
- Wood, etc. Materials for manufacturing of medical products should satisfy such requirements: > To be harmless, biologically inert and non toxic concerning fabrics of an organism and not to allocate substances harmful to a human body; > To have firmness to sterilisation and disinfection; > To be mechanically strong, to store the constant form and volume; > To have beautiful technological properties;
> To be proof to corrosion. THE GENERAL DATA ON PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Distinguish such properties of materials: - The mechanical; - The technological; - The physical; - The chemical; - The biological. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Strength, hardness, toughness, elasticity,
plasticity, brittleness, and ductility and malleability are mechanical properties used as measurements of how metals behave under a load. These properties are described in terms of the types of force or stress that the metal must withstand and how these are resisted. Common types of stress are compression, tension, shear, torsion, impact, 1-2 or a combination of these stresses, such as fatigue. Technological properties To the technological refer to properties which allow to define, to what technological machining there can be submitted a material, and also possibility of its most
effective use at manufacturing of products. It first of all: - Forgeability; - A shrinkage; - Abrasion. Physical properties Physical properties of materials are defined by such basic parametres: - In density; - In fusion temperature; - In boiling temperature; - Warmly - and an electrical conduction;
Biological and chemical properties To chemical properties of materials refer abilities by which their interacting with medium in which they constantly or temporarily are, for example, during sterilisation, disinfection and so forth is defined. Chemical properties are defined by a chemical compound of materials. Biological properties of materials fathom their agency on living tissues and an organism as a whole. All materials which use for manufacturing of products medical appointments pass special check on biological inertia in laboratories on animal that to
biological medium. METAL MATERIALS FERROUS METALS AND THEIR ALLOYS The term 'ferrous' comes from a Latin word ferrum, meaning 'containing iron'. Hence, ferrous metals are all those metals that contain iron. Ferrous metals may contain small amounts of other elements such as carbon or nickel, in a specific proportion, that are added to achieve the desired properties. All the ferrous metals are generally magnetic and have high tensile strength.
NAME Mild Steel ALLOY OF Carbon 0.1 - 0.3% Iron 99.9 - 99.7% Carbon Steel Carbon 0.6 - 1.4% Tough. Can be hardened andCutting tools such Iron 99.4 - 98.6% tempered.
as drills. Iron, nickel andTough, resistant to rust and stains. Cutlery, medical chromium. instruments. Stainless steel PROPERTIES USES Tough. High tensile strength. CanMost common be case hardened. Rusts verymetal used in
easily. school workshops. Used in general metal products and engineering. Cast iron Carbon 2 - 6% Iron 98 - 94% Strong but brittle. CompressiveCastings, manhole strength very high.
covers, engines. Wrought iron Almost 100% iron Fibrous, tough, ductile, resistantOrnamental gates to rusting. and railings. Not in much use today. Nonferrous metals Nonferrous metals and nonferrous alloys are not based on iron and include metals and alloys of
aluminum, brass, bronze, copper, lead, tin, titanium, zinc, nickel, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, magnesium, precious metals, refractory metals. They are used in a variety of applications from construction to medical devices. A nonferrous alloy consists of two or more materials, one of which must be a nonferrous metal. Many nonferrous metals can be used in alloys and are chosen for specific characteristics such as strength, magnetic and electrical properties, and corrosion resistance. NAME
Ductile, soft, malleable, Window frames, machines well. Very light. aircraft, kitchen ware. Copper Reddish brown Not an alloy Ductile, can be beaten into Electrical wiring, shape. Conducts tubing, kettles,
electricity and heat. bowls, pipes. Brass Yellow Mixture of copper and Hard. Casts and machines Parts for zinc 65% - 35% most well. Surface tarnishes. electrical fittings, common ratio. Conducts electricity. ornaments. Silver
Whitish grey Mainly silver but Ductile, Malleable, Jewellery, solder, alloyed with copper to solders, resists corrosion. ornaments. give sterling silver. Lead Bluish grey Not an alloy. Soft, heavy, ductile, loses Solders, pipes,
its shape under pressure. batteries, roofing. CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICAL TOOLS All medical tools which apply in medical practice are classified on: - The prickly; - The cutting; - Clips; - The expanding; - Wringing out; - The probing TOOLS FOR PUNCTURES, INJECTIONS, INFUSIONS
Syringes are made up of a round cylindrical barrel, a close-fitting plunger and a tip where the hub of a needle is attached. They come in a number of sizes, ranging from 5 ml to 60 ml. A 1- to 3-ml syringe is normally adequate for injections given into tissues under the skin, also called subcutaneous injections, or injections into muscle, also known as intramuscular injections. Larger syringes are used to add medication to intravenous lines and irrigate wounds.
Syringes are generally classified as Luer-Lok or non-Luer-Lok syringes. This classification is based on the type of syringe tip. Luer-Lok syringes have tips that require needles that can be twisted and locked into place. This design prevents the needle from accidentally slipping off the syringe. NonLuer-Lok syringes have tips that require needles that can be pressed on to the tip of the syringe without being twisted into place. To injection of liquid in significant amounts apply a syringe of type "Record" of continuous action (fig. 2-9), having a spring
on a rod of the piston and supplied with tees-nozzles. Syringes for washing of cavities (fig. 2-11) differ from injection syringes in capacity and ring presence on the rod end. Exist S. for washings (fig. 2-12) in which diameter of the piston can be regulated by means of a special washer from silicone rubber. Let out special S, the liquids intended for introduction in a throat, in a uterus, and also stomatologic, for oral cavity washing (fig. 3-14, 15, 17, 18). They, as a rule, are supplied by demountable tips. For introduction of contraceptives are intended special S. from plastic (fig. 3-13), To special concern also S. for introduction of roentgen substances. At angiography apply S. with a clamp to a needle or an adapter (fig. 4-19), thus needle or an adapter has screw cutting. For introduction of medical products and antipillboxes at urgent
medical aid, itself and mutual aid apply a syringe-tube the syringe filled with dosed out quantity of a certain medical product. S. RECORD Fig. 2
Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Insulin Syringe Insulin syringes are small in size, they hold between 0.3 and 1 ml of medication. These needles are not calibrated in milliliters, they are calibrated in units. Most insulin syringes are calibrated up to 100 units. Insulin syringes are designed for self-injection and are used to give subcutaneous injections.
Tuberculin Syringe Tuberculin syringes are used for tuberculosis testing. The fluid they contain is injected right into the skin. This syringe is small and is calibrated in milliliters. It has a long, thin barrel with a preattached needle. The tuberculin syringe can hold up to 1 ml of fluid. Even though this syringe is small, it cannot be used to give insulin. Device of Bobrov is intended for injections of great volumes isotonic or physical solutions. Consists of the glass graduated banks on 500 or 1000 ml where the solution is poured; a rubber stopper with two apertures through which two tubes bent at an angle (one long,
the second short) and the rubber air pump are passed. In the complete set two glass filters, two rubber tubes in length on 4 sm and two needles of Bobrov enter also. To the end of a long glass tube attach the rubber tubule which free end spread on the glass filter, filled with sterile cotton wool. On other end of the glass filter spread the rubber air pump. When air pump up in bank in last the elevated pressure, therefore a solution from banks through a rubber tubule which is attached is created to a short tubule, and a needle arrives in a blood vessel. Needles Most needles are made of stainless steel. The
needle is hollow with a hole in the middle and has three parts: the hub, which fits on to the tip of the syringe; the shaft, which is the long length of the needle; and the bevel, which is the slanted tip of the needle. The bevel creates a narrow slit or hole in a persons skin through which the fluid in the syringe is injected into a person. This slit closes once the needle is removed from the person's skin so there is no leakage of medication or blood. Long-beveled tips are sharper and narrower, which reduces discomfort when it pierces the skin. Types Of Needles
Needles are differentiated based on their length and diameter. The length of needles range from between 1/2inch to 3 inches. The diameter of a needle is measured in gauges. A 25-gauge needle has a smaller diameter than a 19-gauge needle. As the needle gauge gets bigger, the needle's diameter gets smaller. Two different needles may have the same length and have different gauge sizes. Needle gauges range from between 7 gauge being the largest to 33 gauge the smallest. Gauge selection is made based on the thickness of a medication to be given. If the medication is thick, a needle with a small gauge and big diameter would be the needle of choice. Intramuscular medications are given with long needles, while subcutaneous medications are given with shorter
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