RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY BASIC VS. APPLIED Basic Applied Seeking knowledge for the sake of knowledge itself
pure research Studying psychological issues in order to apply the findings to help solve problems How do children and adults differ in addictive tendencies?
How can we predict addictive tendencies in adolescents to prevent adult addictions? METHODS Case Studies Detailed description of a particular individual being studied/treated
Observational Studies Naturalistic or lab created situations Tests Personality, aptitudes, interests, values, abilities, etc. Surveys Naturalistic Observation Observation of human or animal behavior in
the environment in which it typically occurs Jane Goodalls study of chimpanzee culture Naturalistic Observation Valuable where other methods are likely to be disruptive or misleading Problems with Naturalistic Observation If people know they are being observed, they tend to act differently than they normally would
Ethically you usually must tell people you are observing them, yet can combat by observing for a long period of time Observations can be distorted if observers expect to see certain behaviors Why would this be a problem? How could it Case Study Intensive examination of the behavior and mental processes associated with a specific person or situation
http://behavioralhealth.typepad.com Case study Are useful when something is new, complex or fairly rare Often used in clinical work and neuropsychology Limitations May contain evidence that a certain research thought to be important (why would this be a
problem?) Are unlikely to be representative of people in general Yetprovide valuable material for further research and serve as testing ground for new treatment, training programs & other applications Survey A technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people.
http://www.lynnefeatherstone.org Surveys Validity of data depends upon: How questions are worded Representativeness of people surveyed (why?) Other limitations Willingness of people to honestly
complete the survey People may say what they believe they should say about an issue Still a great way to gather LARGE CORRELATIONAL VS. EXPERIMENTAL Correlational Research Experimental Research
Study that looks at consistent relationship between two things that are already occurring A study that tests a hypothesis using controls and manipulation of variables
Positive Negative Independent Dependent Correlation The measure of the relationship between two items or variables POSITIVE CORRELATION
Two variables increase together or decrease together NEGATIVE CORRELATION Variables move in opposite directions Example: The number of gallons of gas pumped is
positively correlated to the amount spent on gas. Example: Miles traveled is negatively correlated to the amount of gas left in your tank. CORRELATIONS
A correlation expresses a relationship between two variables without ascribing cause Variable = anything that can change or vary COREELATION DOES NOT = CAUSATION!!!!!! spurious correlations . DIRECTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS Positive Correlation
The presence of one thing predicts the other As one thing goes up, so does the other Examples? Negative Correlation The presence of one
thing predicts the absence of the other As one thing goes up, the other goes down Examples? Scatterplots Perfect positive correlation (+1.00)
Perfect negative correlation (-1.00) No relationship (0.00) Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points generated by values of two variables. The slope of points depicts the direction, and the amount of scatter the strength of relationship.
VISUALIZING A CORRELATION Must be graphed using a scatter plot The line of best fit, or regression line, is drawn through the middle in a way that minimizes its space from as many points as possible The closer the points to the line, the more perfect the correlational relationship (Coefficient closer to +1 or -1) Correlation Coefficient
Examples What kind of relationships do the following correlations have? - 0.78 moderately strong negative + 0.05 very weak positive
- 0.43 moderately weak negative + 0.92 very strong positive Another example. Scatterplot showing relationship between height and temperament in people. What kind of relationship is depicted?
Moderately positive +.63 Correlation Coefficient Statistical measure that shows the degree of relationship between two variables Correlation coefficient Number will always fall between
-1.0 and +1.0 The higher the number the stronger the relationship Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) r = + 0.37 Indicates direction of relationship
(positive or negative) CORRELATION COEFFICIENT Represented by the letter r Ranges from [-1] to [+1] -1 is a perfect Negative relationship
+1 is a perfect Positive relationship 0 is the weakest relationship EXPERIMENTAL METHOD - TERMS Participants Operational definitions LEGOS activity Independent variables The thing you manipulate Dependent variables The thing affected by the ind. Var.
It depends on the ind. Var. Confounding variables Other factors (beside the ind. Var.) that could effect the dependent variable Participant-relevant controlled by random assignment Situation-relevant controlled by equivalent environments TERMS - CONTINUED Experimental group Group exposed to the independent variable that is
manipulated.exposed to the treatment Control group Group NOT exposed to treatment. Serves as a comparison to the experimental group Valid Does the study measure what you aim to measure? Like.Hand length a measure of intelligence Reliable
If the study was done again, would you get the same results? SAMPLING Sampling Process in which participants are selected for a study Goal: For the sample population to be representative of a larger population Random selection vs. random assignment
Random Selection: every person in a population has an equal chance of being selected (best done by computer) Random Assignment: Participants have equal chance of being put into experimental or control group DOUBLE/SINGLE BLIND STUDIES Single Blind Study Participants dont know if they are in the control group or the experimental group Placebos can be used to prevent this when using medicine
Double Blind Study Neither the participants or researchers know who is in which group Participants usually coded some way Researchers see results but dont know which group participant was from Helps prevent experimenter bias EFFECTS AND BIASES Biases
Observer bias what experimenter expects to see, can change how s/he sees the behaviors being watched More specifically confirmation bias: tendency to notice only things that agree with your view or hypothesis Order effects Participants may get better at a repetitive task of an experiment because they are practicing with each trial
Participants may get worse at a repetitive task of an experiement because they get fatigued. DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS Demand Characteristics (Participant bias) the clues in an experiment that lead the participants to think they know what the researcher is looking for (e.g. experimenters body language). Hawthorne Effect Participants beh. changes because they know they are being observed. Usually performance increases
Placebo Effect The improvement of a patient or cure because of the perceived benefits of a treatment (even if the pill/injection/cream/etc. is fake.) Pygmalion Effect The researchers expectations are unknowingly projected onto participants. The participants behave in a way that matches those expectations. STUDY SUMMARY WORK
On your own, complete the study summary sheet with the study by Rosenthal. Completing this is homework PYGMALION EFFECT DUE NEXT CLASS Reading Guide 2C Correlation practice sheet Next class: statistics in psychological research
Vocab Quiz for Unit 2-same format. Majority of Qs from History/Approaches SMILING OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
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