Review Packet Time Period 4: Early Modern Era (1450-1750)

Review Packet Time Period 4: Early Modern Era (1450-1750)

Post-Classical Era 600 C.E.-1450 C.E. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM Islam was founded in 610 C.E. by Muhammad in the Arabian Peninsula THE SPREAD OF ISLAM Islamic beliefs and traditions reflected interactions between Jews, Christians, and

Zoroastrians Religious zeal played a big role in the rapid spread of Islam during the 7th and 8th centuries, but several other factors also helped: THE SPREAD OF ISLAM Military expansion - Islamic armies were well-disciplined and efficiently organized The empires around the Arabian Peninsula were weak, especially the Persian Empire Muslims did not force people they conquered to convert (respected Jews and

Christians as people the book or dhimmis); many chose to convert to Islam to avoid paying a jizya, or tax on non-Muslims Merchants played huge role Muslims came to dominate many trade routes, introducing Islam to new areas (many chose to convert for increased trade opportunities) THE SPREAD OF ISLAM Sufis (Muslim mystics/missionaries) helped spread the religion as they often adapted the religion to local customs which made it appealing (Sufis played huge role in spreading Islam to South and

Southeast Asia) THE SUNNI-SHI'A SPLIT Following the death of Muhammad, there was a fight in the Islamic world on who should succeed him as the next caliph (leader of the Islamic world) and two groups emerged: Sunni = Represents the majority of Muslims who believed Islamic scholars should select the next caliph; this group formed the Umayyad Caliphate which ruled the Muslim world from 661 to 750 Shi'a = Believe the caliph should be a relative of Muhammad

(wanted his cousin, Ali); and when Ali was killed they sought revenge; the split still exists and plagues the Islamic world THE SUNNI-SHI'A SPLIT Following the fall of the Umayyad, a new Muslim empire emerged, the Abbasid Caliphate, which lasted from 750 to 1258 Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258) Succeeded the Umayyad and represented a golden age of Islamic culture; the capital of Baghdad had libraries and universities and was a cultural center By the 1000s, the Abbasid were weakened, and in 1258 they were conquered by

the Mongols THE CHANGING STATUS OF WOMEN Early on in Islam, women enjoyed a higher status than many places elsewhere: women could inherit property, divorce their husbands, and partake in business (even though society was still patriarchal) Sharia Law = Strict Islamic religious law which existed in the caliphates; it reinforces male dominance (ex: men can have four wives but women only one husband)

Over time ,womens status in Islam declined an example is veiling of women (a custom that existed prior to Islam in the region but was adopted by Muslims) ARTS, SCIENCES, AND TECHNOLOGIES Madrasas = Colleges for Islamic instruction which began to spring up as Islam spread; they attracted scholars from all over, and a flowering of the arts and sciences occurred in Islam

Muslims had great achievements in mathematics (algebra, adoption of Indian numerals which became known as Arabic numerals) and Greek philosophy, science, and medical writings (as Europe went through feudalism, Greek learning was kept alive by the Muslims) INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACTS Existing trade routes (Silk Roads, Mediterranean Sea, Trans-Saharan, and Indian Ocean) flourished between 600 and 1450, and new and powerful trading states emerged (ex: Mali, Italian city-states)

INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACTS A major reason for the expansion of trade was new innovations, and luxury goods became more and more desirable INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACTS New innovations that increased trade included: Caravanserai (groups traveling together, for example groups of people with camels

travelling across the Sahara Dessert) Compass and astrolabe which helped with navigation New forms of money supplies and credit (ex: availability of credit, creation of banks, use of paper money) which made it easier to travel and do business INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACTS Muslim merchants came to dominate trade in the Mediterranean and Indian Oceans, and Muslim merchant communities formed in places along the Indian Ocean like East Africa

AFRICAN SOCIETIES AND EMPIRES Beginning around 640, Islam spread into the northern part of Africa Many African rulers converted to the new religion, and centralized states began to form Islam mixed with native cultures and took on different forms in different places in Africa

AFRICAN SOCIETIES AND EMPIRES This gradual, nonviolent spread of Islam was very conducive to trade, especially since people south of the Sahara had gold Between 600 and 1450, two major empires emerged in West Africa, south of the Sahara Ghana (c.700-c.1230) Grew wealthy because it was along gold and salt trade route and Ghana taxed those

traders Ghana's king had exclusive rights to the gold, and controlled its supply to keep price high Like the Africans along the Mediterranean, Ghana's rulers and elites converted to Islam, but most others retained their native religions. Mali (c.1230-1600) Mali grew to be larger, more powerful, and richer than Ghana Mali too based its wealth on gold Mansu Musa (1280-1377) = Mali ruler best known for giving away so much gold as he traveled from Mali to Mecca for the hajj that he set off a major round of inflation, seriously affecting

economies all along the long-distance trade routes. Mali's capital city, Timbuktu, became a world center of trade, education and sophistication. AFRICAN SOCIETIES AND EMPIRES Swahili Coast = East coast of Africa where many city-states emerged during this time period The city-states emerged due to their involvement in Indian Ocean trade The cities were not united politically, but they were well developed, with a great deal of cultural diversity and sophisticated architecture

Most were Muslims (as Muslims dominated Indian Ocean trade) but these cities were very diverse with people from many areas moving in to partake in the trade THE CHRISTIAN CRUSADES (LATE 11TH THROUGH 13TH CENTURIES C.E.) Crusades (1095-1291) = Holy wars in which European Christians tried to take back the holy lands in the Middle East from Muslims THE CHRISTIAN CRUSADES (LATE 11TH THROUGH 13TH CENTURIES C.E.)

A major result of the Crusades was that Europeans were brought into world trade (they had been living through feudalism, a time in Europeans were not very active in interregional trade) The societies of the Middle East were much richer and sophisticated than European kingdoms were, and the knights brought home all kinds of trading goods from many parts of the world and stimulated a demand in Europe for foreign products, such as silk, spices, and gold.

THE CHRISTIAN CRUSADES (LATE 11TH THROUGH 13TH CENTURIES C.E.) As trade greatly increased between Europe and the Middle East, Italian city-states were in a great location to take advantage and grow rich from this trade, especially Venice and Genoa This wealth eventually became the basis for great cultural change in Europe (the Renaissance) THE IMPORTANCE OF THE

MONGOLS Mongols = Nomadic group from Central Asia that conquered China, India, the Middle East, and the budding kingdom of Russia The Mongols established and ruled the largest empire ever assembled in all of world history Although their attacks at first disrupted the major trade routes, their rule eventually brought the Pax Mongolica (a period of peace during which trade flourished) THE RISE OF THE MONGOLS The Mongols originated in the Central Asian steppes (grasslands)

Around 1200 CE, a Mongol khan (clan leader) named Temujin unified the clans under his leadership and became leader of all Mongols, taking the title Genghis Khan THE RISE OF THE MONGOLS Over the next 21 years, he led the Mongols in conquering much of Asia Although he didn't conquer China in his lifetime, he cleared the way for its eventual conquest His sons and grandsons continued the conquests until the empire eventually reached its impressive size

The Mongols were also contained in Islamic lands by the Mamluk armies of Egypt, who had been enslaved by the Abbasid Caliphate (Mamluks were also skilled horsemen) THE MONGOL ORGANIZATION Following the death of Genghis Khan, his sons and grandsons formed four Khanates, or political organizations each ruled by a different relative Once the Mongols defeated an area, generally by brutal tactics, they were generally content to extract tribute (payments) from them, and often allowed conquered people to keep many of their customs

The Mongol khans were spread great distances apart, and soon lost contact with one another THE MONGOL ORGANIZATION Most of them adopted many customs, even the religions, of the people they ruled, so when the Mongol Empire eventually split apart, the Mongols themselves became assimilated into the cultures that they had "conquered." The Mongol conquests have been depicted as assaults by savage and barbarian people who brought nothing but death and destruction to the areas they attacked. Whereas no one can deny the brutality of the Mongols, their conquests

had a much more varied impact on world history than has been acknowledged by many historians in the past. At the peak of their power, the Pax Mongolica meant that once-hostile people lived together in peace in areas where most religions were tolerated. From the Il-Khan in the Middle East to the Yuan Dynasty in China, Mongol rulers established order, and most importantly, provided the stage for intensified international contact. Protected by Mongol might, the trade routes carried new foods, inventions, and ideas from one civilization to the others, with nomadic people acting as intermediaries. THREE TRAVELLERS

Marco Polo In the late 13th century, Marco Polo left his home in Venice, and eventually traveled for many years in China, looking to stimulate trade between Venice along the trade routes east Polo met the Chinese ruler Kublai Khan (Genghis Khan's grandson), who was interested in his travel stories and convinced him to stay in China which Polo did for 17 years When he returned home, he was captured by Genoans at war with Venice While in prison, he entertained his cellmates with stories about China, and one prisoner compiled the stories into a book that became wildly popular in Europe, even though many did not believe that Polo's stories were true Marco Polos effect was to stimulate Europeans desire with China

THREE TRAVELLERS Ibn Battuta Traveler and writer in the 14th century who spent many years of his life visiting places throughout the Islamic Empires He was a Moroccan legal scholar who left his home for the first time to make a pilgrimage to Mecca After his hajj was completed, he traveled through Mesopotamia and Persia, then sailed down the Red Sea and down the east African coast as far south as Kilwa, and later he traveled to India, the Black Sea, Spain, Mali, and the great trading cities of Central Asia He wrote about all of the places he traveled and compiled a detailed journal that has given historians a lots of information about those places and their customs during the 14th century

THREE TRAVELLERS Xuanzang Chinese monk who spent 17 years traveling (in the 7 th century) and was largely responsible for bringing Buddhism from India to China CHINA'S HEGEMONY Hegemony = When a civilization extends political, economic, and social influence over others In the time period between 600 and 1450 CE, it was impossible for one empire to

dominate the entire globe, largely because distance and communication were so difficult Both the Islamic caliphates and the Mongol Empire fell at least partly because their land space was too large to control effectively So the best any empire could do was to establish regional hegemony, and during this time period, and China was the richest and most powerful of all, and extended its reach over most of Asia. THE "GOLDEN ERA" OF THE TANG AND SONG

After the fall of the Han Dynasty in 220 C.E., China went into chaos for hundreds of years Sui Dynasty (589-618) = Short-lived dynasty that restored centralized imperial rule A great accomplishment was the state-sponsored building of the Grand Canal, one of the world's largest waterworks projects before the modern era The canal was a series of manmade waterways that connected the major rivers and made it possible for

China to increase the amount and variety of internal trade When completed it was almost 1240 miles long, with roads running parallel to the canal on either side. ECONOMIC REVOLUTIONS OF THE TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES Even though the Song military weakness eventually led to the dynasty's demise, it is notable for economic innovations and improvements that led to Chinese

hegemony during the era China's economic growth affected other societies because China engaged in longdistance trade with them (for example traded with Abbasid Caliphate) ECONOMIC REVOLUTIONS OF THE TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES Some characteristics of these economic revolutions are: Increasing agricultural production The Tang conquest of southern China and Vietnam added a whole new capability for agriculture; the cultivation of rice In Vietnam they made use of a new strain of fast-ripening rice

that allowed the production of two crops per year Agricultural techniques improved, such as the horse collar allowing horses to haul heavy iron plows The Tang also organized extensive irrigation systems, so that agricultural production was able to move outward from the rivers. ECONOMIC REVOLUTIONS OF THE TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES Increasing population - China's population about 600 C.E. was about 45

million, but by 1200 (the Song Dynasty) it had risen to about 115 million This growth occurred partly because of the agricultural revolution, but also because distribution of food improved with better transportation systems, such as the Grand Canal Urbanization - The agricultural revolution also meant that established cities grew and new ones were created Xi'an, with a population of 2 million, was probably the largest city in the world The Song capital of Hangzhou was smaller, with about 1 million residents, but it too was a cosmopolitan city with large markets, public theatres, restaurants, and craft shops

China had more cities of over 100,000 people than anywhere in the world Because rice production was so successful and Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade was vigorous, other farmers could concentrate on specialty fruits and vegetables that were for sale in urban markets ECONOMIC REVOLUTIONS OF THE TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES Technological innovations - During Tang times, craftsmen discovered techniques for producing porcelain that was lighter, thinner, more useful, and much more beautiful.

Chinese porcelain was highly valued and traded to many other areas of the world, and came to be known broadly as chinaware The Chinese also developed superior methods for producing iron and steel, and between the 9th and 12th centuries, iron production increased tenfold The Tang and Song are best known for the new technologies they invented, such as gunpowder, movable type printing, and seafaring aids, such as the magnetic compass Gunpowder was first used in bamboo flame throwers and fireworks, and by the11th century inventors had constructed crude bombs.

ECONOMIC REVOLUTIONS OF THE TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES Financial inventions - Because trade was so strong and copper became scarce, Chinese merchants developed paper money as an alternative to coins Letters of credit called "flying cash" allowed merchants to deposit money in one location and have it available in another The Chinese also used checks which allowed drawing funds deposited with bankers

NEO-CONFUCIANISM Neo-Confucianism = New form of Confucianism that formed in China during this time period which combined some elements of Buddhism with Confucianism PATRIARCHAL SOCIAL STRUCTURES With the advent of Neo-Confucianism, as well as increased wealth in China, the patriarchal social structure of China strengthened and womens status declined further Foot-binding = The tightly wrapping young girls' feet so that natural growth was

seriously impaired which results in a tiny malformed foot with the toes curled under and the bones breaking in the process. The women generally could not walk except with canes. Peasants and middle class women did not bind their feet because it was impractical (needed to help work farms, etc.), but for elite women, the practice like wearing veils in Islamic lands - indicated their subservience to their male guardians. During this time period, patriarchal societies dominated, but in some areas women began to exercise more rights: Mongol Empire, West Africa, Japan, and Southeast Asia (where women played an important role in merchant activity)

KOREA AND JAPAN Silla Dynasty (57 B.C.E.-935 C.E.)= Dynasty that ruled Korea, but during this time period became came under Chinese influence and had to pay tribute to China The tributary relationship developed in a great deal of Chinese influence diffusing to Korea. KOREA AND JAPAN On the other hand, Chinese armies never invaded Japan, and even Kublai Khan's great Mongol forces could not overcome the treacherous straits that lie between Korea and Japan

The straits had isolated Japan since its beginnings, and its many islands and mountainous terrain led to separations among people who lived there KOREA AND JAPAN Small states dominated by aristocratic clans developed, with agricultural communities developing wherever they were possible KOREA AND JAPAN Some Chinese influence, such as Confucianism, Buddhism, and Chinese writing

characters diffused to Japan, but it remained unique in many ways, one of which is: Shintoism -Religion that venerated ancestors, but also had a host of nature spirits and deities. Confucianism and Buddhism did not replace Shintoism, and it remained as an important religion in Japan. KOREA AND JAPAN The Japanese developed a system of feudalism by the end of this time period. The Japanese elites - who came to be known as daimyos - found military talent in the samurai, professional warriors who swore loyalty to them. Samurais lived

by a warrior's code - the bushido -that required them to commit suicide (seppuku) by disembowelment if they failed their masters. DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE (500-1450 C.E.) The era from about 500 to 1000 C.E. is sometimes referred to as the "Dark Ages" in European history, partly because many aspects of the Roman civilization were lost, such as written language, advanced architectural and building techniques, complex government, and access to long-distance trade For the most part, these early people of Europe could not read or

write, and lived much as their nomadic ancestors had DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE (500-1450 C.E.) In their isolation, they slowly cleared the forested areas for farming, but their greatest need was for protection Dangers lay not only from animals in the forests, but also from other people that had settled in nearby areas However, the need for protection grew to be most important when the Vikings from Scandinavia invaded many areas of Europe in the 8th and 9th centuries, followed by the Magyars, who came from the east in the

late 9th century DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE (500-1450 C.E.) In response, Europeans established feudalism, with many features similar to Japanese feudalism, but also with many differences European feudal institutions revolved around political and military relationships. The feudal political order developed into a complicated network of lord-vassal relationships, with lords having overlords, and overlords owing allegiance to kings On these foundations early kingdoms, such as England and France, were built,

but in other areas, such as modern-day Germany, the feudal organization remained highly decentralized COMPARATIVE FEUDALISM - JAPAN AND EUROPE Japan Similarities Europe

Relied on the labor of serfs (a form of coerced labor) The idea of mutual ties and obligations was strong, with rituals and institutions that expressed them. Feudalism was highly militaristic, with values such as physical courage, personal or family alliances, loyalty, ritualized combat, and contempt for non-warriors. COMPARATIVE FEUDALISM - JAPAN AND EUROPE Japan

Differences Europe Feudalistic ties relied on group and individual loyalties. Feudalistic ties were sealed by negotiated contracts, with explicit

assurances of the advantages of the arrangement. Legacy was a group consciousness in which collective decision-making teams were eventually linked to the state. Legacy was the reliance on

parliamentary institutions in which participants could discuss and defend legal interests against the central monarch. THE DIVISION OF CHRISTENDOM When Rome fell in 476 C.E., the eastern part of the empire survived and became known as Byzantium (Byzantine Empire), led by Constantine who named the capital Constantinople

THE DIVISION OF CHRISTENDOM As Christianity spread, it developed religious centers in both Rome and Constantinople, and as the two areas grew more politically independent, Christian practices and beliefs also split Even though the church remained officially tied for many years after Rome fell in 476, in effect two different churches developed: the Eastern Orthodox Church in the east and the Roman Catholic Church in the west

THE DIVISION OF CHRISTENDOM The Great Schism (1054) = The official split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE While the west was falling to the Germanic invasions in the 4th and 5th centuries C.E., the eastern empire remained intact, partly because it withstood fewer attacks This Byzantine Empire survived for almost a millennium after the western empire collapsed

For a time, it was a powerful Christian Empire, but it came under pressure from Islamic Turkish people by the 11th century, and finally fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. THE CHURCH IN THE WEST With Europe going through feudalism and everybody so separated, the Catholic Church emerged as a unifying institution with great religious, political, and economic power The Catholic Church established its influence in several ways: Development of a church hierarchy - The Pope in Rome came to be the head

of the church, with cardinals that reported to him, and then archbishops, bishops, and priests below that Establishment of wandering ministries - Not only did the church have priests attached to almost every village, but it also had wandering priests who represented its influence Monasteries = Retreats from civilization that were inhabited by monks who devoted their lives to study, worship, and hard work (Convents for nuns also were established) THE CHURCH IN THE WEST

Monasteries and Convents became the centers of scholarship, education, and libraries: monks very often were the only people in Europe that could read and write, and they spent large amounts of time copying ancient manuscripts that otherwise might have been lost in the various invasions, with some monasteries eventually formed the first European universities that began their library collections with books the monks had copied. THE LATE MIDDLE AGES - 1000- 1450 C.E. Starting around 1000, Europe showed signs of revitalizing, largely

because of the Crusades, which created a desire for goods from the Middle East and elsewhere Before 1300 Europe was populated by serfs, or peasants tied to lands owned by nobles, living in rural areas, and no large cities existed, like in China, the Middle East, and northern Africa Many demographic changes took place that radically altered life in Europe: THE LATE MIDDLE AGES - 1000- 1450 C.E. Agricultural Revolution = Largely through contacts with others, Europeans learned and adapted

agricultural techniques and inventions that greatly increased their crop production. They perfected the three-field system, in which they rotated crops, allowing a field to remain fallow every third year. They also used iron plows much better suited to the heavy soils of northern and western Europe. Watermills, horses, and horse harnesses (all in use in other areas of the world) contributed to farming efficiency. Between 800 and 1300, warmer temperatures on Earth increased agricultural production THE LATE MIDDLE AGES - 1000- 1450 C.E. Population increases - With the increase in crop production came population growth, with more hands available to expand agriculture.

THE LATE MIDDLE AGES - 1000- 1450 C.E. Revival of trade - This revival started in Venice and Genoa, Italian cities that profited from trade during the Crusades. However, the growing population sparked demand for more products so that trade intensified town to town, and a new trade area in present-day northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands. THE LATE MIDDLE AGES - 1000- 1450 C.E. Growth of towns/new towns - The growing trade, crop production, and population stimulated villages to become towns, and the towns became centers

for craftsmen, merchants, and specialized laborers. Commercial Revolution = Once European towns connected to the long-distance trade routes, they learned to use financial innovations developed elsewhere, like banks and bills of exchange (its the time that Europe entered world trade on a large-scale (beginning around the 1200s) Guilds = Craftsmen formed guilds, or trade associations for their particular craft. These organizations came to be quite powerful, passing laws, levying taxes, and challenging powerful merchants. The guilds set standards for goods, regulated labor, and supervised apprentices as they learned the trade.

THE LATE MIDDLE AGES - 1000- 1450 C.E. Hanseatic League = Organization founded by north German towns and merchants who worked together to protect and secure trade. The organization had strict rules that protected trade rights for its members, and even had a military to protect traders in the group. The Hanseatic League came to dominate trade in northern Europe from the 1200s to the 1400s, and played a large role in commercial (business/trade) growth in Europe EARLY RUSSIA Russia began in the city of Kiev, which was a key trading post between the Byzantines and the

Vikings As a result, much of Russian culture was influenced by the Byzantine Empire, such as the adoption of Eastern Orthodoxy, architectural styles (onion-shaped domes), and even the Cyrillic alphabet used by Russia came from the Byzantines Eventually as more and more cities sprung up, they became known collectively as Kievan Rus, which formed the basis for Russia EARLY RUSSIA In around 1240, the Mongols came and conquered Russia, destroying the city of Kiev The princes of Moscow were assigned by the Mongols to collect tribute

Once Mongol power weakened, the princes saw their opportunity to rebel, and they seized the territory, eventually driving the Mongols out of Russia and forming modern-day Russia Mongol rule cut Russia off from the rest of Europe, and when Europe underwent the Renaissance, Russia was left out and fell further behind THE AMERINDIAN WORLD Prior to 1492, the western and eastern hemispheres had very little contact with one another Even though Christopher Columbus was

certainly not the first to go from one hemisphere to the other, his voyage does represent the beginning of sustained contacts, a trend that was a major turning point in world history However, during the period between 600 and 1450 C.E., large empires had emerged in the Americas, and communication and exchange (trade) networks existed just as they did in Europe, Africa, and Asia

THE AMERINDIAN WORLD Maya (1800 B.C.E.-900 C.E.) = Established an empire consisting of dozens of city-states that traded with one another THE AMERINDIAN WORLD Aztec/Mexica (1300-1521) = Empire established in Central Mexico, well-known for building chinampas (floating gardens) which

led to significant agricultural growth THE AMERINDIAN WORLD Inca (1438-1532) = Empire in the Andean region of South America, well-known for building roadways through the Andes, which greatly increased commercial activity within the empire Mita System = Form of coerced labor used by the Inca which required people to work for the government for part of the year as a form of tribute

DEMOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES The era from 600 to 1450 C.E. was a time when civilization spread geographically, covering many more parts of the world than previously. However, it was also a time of great migrations of people that had wide impacts on the people in settled areas. DEMOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES Arabs = The most significant effect of the Arab movement from the Arabian Peninsula was the

spread of Islam. Arabs invaded, settled, and eventually ruled, the Middle East, northern Africa, and southern Europe. Although the political structure of the caliphate did not survive, Islam held the areas together culturally as it mixed with natively customs and religions. Despite the political disunity and the splits between Sunni and Shi'a, the Islamic World emerged as an entire cultural area during this era. Arabs and Berbers (nomads from north Africa) adapted camels to travel and trade across the Sahara Dessert, thus playing a huge role in Trans-Saharan trade. DEMOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES Vikings = The Vikings swept into many parts of Europe during the 8th and 9th centuries, looting

and destroying communities, churches, and monasteries. The Vikings built ships called longships, which allowed them to travel long distances and navigate through rivers, greatly aiding their conquests. Some settled and intermarried with natives, forming new groups such as the Rus (Russians). However, a very important consequence of their invasions was the development of feudalism in Europe. The attacks convinced Europeans that protection was vital, and so they organized into a network of lords and vassals, that eventually built kingdoms with great armies ready to fight. DEMOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES Turks = The Turkish people were originally Indo-Europeans who migrated into the Middle East

during various times of the era. The Seljuk Turks invaded the Byzantine Empire, sparking another great migration from Europe to the Middle East - the Crusaders. Seljuk Turks were indirectly responsible, then, for Europe's growing interest and involvement in long-distance trade. By the end of the era the Ottoman Turks were on the rise. They captured Constantinople and many other parts of Europe, and they gained control of trade on the Mediterranean. Turks even invaded India, forming the Delhi Sultanate, and introduced Islam to India with such force that the consequences reverberated through the rest of Indian history. DEMOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES Bantu = Bantu-speaking people originally lived in an area south of the Sahara, but probably

because the desert was spreading southward they began to migrate to better land. They spread south and east into many parts of Africa, and their language became a basis for the formation of many later languages. The Bantu Migration is generally believed to be a major source for Africanity, or a set of cultural characteristics (including language) that are commonly shared on the continent. Examples include music, the use of masks, and scarification (permanent beauty etchings on the skin). The Bantu also spread knowledge of agriculture to Sub-Saharan, as well as knowledge of working with iron. DEMOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES Polynesians = The Polynesian people

used outrigger canoes to migrate amongst the islands in the Pacific (beginning near Taiwan and Indonesia). As they migrated, they brought the ability to cultivate plants and domesticate animals to new islands. CULTURAL DIFFUSION AND THE 14TH CENTURY PLAGUES As Eurasians traveled over long distances, they not only exchanged

goods and ideas, but they unwittingly helped disease to spread as well. Since people who have had no previous exposure to a disease react to it much more seriously than those that have, the consequences were profound. CULTURAL DIFFUSION AND THE 14TH CENTURY PLAGUES Bubonic Plague (1300s) = Erupted in epidemics throughout most of Asia, Europe, and North Africa. Even though it abated in subsequent centuries, it broke out sporadically from place to place well into the seventeenth century. The plague probably originated in southwestern China, where it had been incubating for centuries, but once long-distance trade began, it

spread rapidly during the 14th century. The pathogen was spread by fleas that infested rats and eventually humans. Mongol military campaigns helped the plague spread throughout China, and merchants and travelers spread it to the west. By the 1340s it had spread to Black Sea ports and to Italian cities on the Mediterranean. From there, the plague spread rapidly throughout Europe as far as the British Isles. Important results of the plague are: CULTURAL DIFFUSION AND THE 14TH CENTURY PLAGUES Decline in population - In China decreasing population caused by the plague contributed to the decline of the Yuan Dynasty and lent

support to the overthrow of Mongol control there. Europe's population dropped by about 25% during the 14th century. In Egypt population levels did not recover to pre-plague days probably until the 19th century. Labor shortages - The plague was no respecter of social class, and the affected areas lost craftsmen, artisans, merchants, religious officials, farmers, bureaucrats and rulers. In many areas farms fell into ruin, towns deteriorated, and trade almost came to a standstill. Labor shortages turned into social unrest, and rebellions popped up in many areas.

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