Revolutions and National States in the Atlantic World
Revolutions and National States in the Atlantic World Chapter 28 Intro: Popular Sovereignty and Political Upheaval
Impact of Enlightenment ideas Government for the people Against monarchical and aristocratic regimes North America: against British rule -> successful France: against monarchy -> failed, but lasting impact Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas Most settled, agricultural societies were monarchies (justification through divine sanction)
Enlightenment Ideas (from philosophes): Popular sovereignty: government as contract between rulers/ ruled religious tolerance and freedom of expression Against legal and social privileges of aristocrats But, not for all, just for those like them (educated men) Ideas adopted by revolutionary leaders to justify reform of political and social structure The American Revolution
Cause: weakening royal power (distance and inefficiency), colonists were accustomed to some autonomy 1760s: Britain tried to reassert control (needed $ after 7 years war) -> resistance Colonists argument: no taxation without representation > boycotts, protests, Continental Congress, Enlightenment-inspired Declaration of Independence, American Revolution (supported by other Europeans)
The American Revolution (cont.) Colonists won: 1781, British surrendered at Yorktown and 1783, Treaty of Paris New state reflected Enlightenment principles Individual rights, popular sovereignty, equality (for property-owning white men) But, British law, culture, and social organization remained
The French Revolution Based on Enlightenment ideas, but more radical than American: wanted new pol, soc, and cultural structures (but had no experience with selfgovernment) 1780s: govt had fiscal problems (lots of debt and huge bureaucracy) -> taxes on nobility -> protests -> summoned the Estates General (1 vote per estate) 3rd estate wanted pol and soc reform
The French Revolution (cont.) 6/1789: 3rd estate seceded and formed National Assembly 7/1789: storming of the Bastille -> rebellion throughout France 8/1789: Nat. Assem. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (equality for all, pop sov, indiv rights) 1789-91: Nat. Assem. reorganized society (abolished old order, peasant obligations, church lands, 1st estate) Constitution: constitutional monarchy, republic
The French Revolution (cont.) Response: nobles tried to get foreign support Nat. Assem. declared war on Austria, Prussia, Spain, Britain, Netherlands The Convention (legislative body elected by universal male suffrage) Universal conscription of people and resources for war Sought out enemies at home: executed many with
guillotine (Louis and Marie Antoinette) The French Revolution (cont.) 1793-94: Robespierre and Jacobin party dominated Convention Committee of Public Safety Sought complete restructuring: eliminate al Christian influence closed churches, forced priests to marry, developed cult of reason, non-religious calendar, renumbered years, more rights to women, Reign of Terror (40,000 killed, including Robespierre)
The French Revolution (cont.) 1795-1799: conservatives took power and ruled as The Directory Failed to solve problems, inconsistence policies, challenges to authority 1799: overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte (army officer, revolutionary supporter) -> set up Consulate (3 consuls, but he was in charge)
1802: declared himself emperor The Reign of Napoleon Political stability, peace with and support of Roman Catholic Church and pope 1804: revised body of law -> Civil Code Political and legal equality for adult males Merit-based qualifications for education and employment Protection of private property Confirmed Nat. Assem.s acts Upheld patriarchal authority in family
Adopted in New World and other European states But, limited free speech, approved secret police, ignored elected bodies, set up a dynasty The Reign of Napoleon (cont.) Wanted to expand authority in Europe: Iberian and Italian peninsula, Netherlands, Austria, Prussia Sent brothers to rule conquered lands, formed alliances with Austria, Prussia and Russia
1812: Invasion of Russia = FAIL 1814: Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia armies formed coalition and forced abdication Monarchy restored, Napoleon exiled to Elba The Reign of Napoleon (cont.) 1815: escaped and rebuilt army, ruled France for 100 days
Defeated by Brits at Waterloo -> exiled to St. Helena, died in 1821 Intro: The Influence of Revolution Enlightenment ideals appealed to people throughout the Americas and Europe Revolution in Haiti Independence movements in Latin America Social reform movements (esp. for slaves and women)
The Haitian Revolution Western Hispaniola = Saint Domingue sugar, coffee, cotton plantations Society: white colonials (administrators, plantation owners, lower class), gens de couleur mulattoes and blacks (artisans, servants, overseers, land/slave owners), and slaves mulattoes and blacks (terrible conditions, high mortality, maroon communities)
The Haitian Revolution (cont.) Issues: gens de couleur (who had fought in Am. Rev.) wanted equality), with French Rev. -> self-govt (but no equality) -> civil war in 5/1791 8/1791: slave revolt 1792 and 93: French, British, Spanish troops tried to restore order Under Toussaint-Louverture, slaves overcame whites, gens de couleur, and foreign armies 1801: T-L wrote constitution (equality and citizenship for all), didnt declare independence 1802: Napoleon sent troops to restore order; yellow fever killed many troops, allowing Haitians
to win 1803: independence Wars of Independence in Latin America Peninsulares ruled, but creoles resented pol and econ control of Spain and Portugal -> tax revolts and uprisings (didnt really want equality for all, just wanted to take peninsulares place) 1810-1825: independence movements -> creole-dominated republics
Napoleons invasion of Iberia weakened royal authority Mexican Independence 1810: revolt of indigenous and mestizo peasants led by Hidalgo against colonial rule (invoked Virgin of Guadalupe and called for death of Spaniards) 1821: Gen. Iturbide (Creole) declared independence and himself emperor 1823: deposed by creole elites -> republic
1825: southern Mexico (C. Am.) declared independence as Central American Federation and as individual states in 1838 South American Independence Led by creole elite Simon Bolivar (inspired by Enlightenment ideas of pop sov, republicanism) starting in 1811 1819: defeated Spanish in Colombia Also campaigned in Venezuela,
Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Chile By 1825: success throughout South America Wanted to create U.S.-like confederation (e.g., Gran Colombia), but too many regional difference Brazilian Independence Portuguese royal court fled to Brazil when Napoleon invaded 1821: king returned, leaving son Pedro as regent 1822: pressure from creoles for independence ->
Pedro agreed (became Emperor Pedro I) Creole Dominance Independence did not mean social change Still stratified Military caudillos (with creole elite support) held military authority Slavery continued Wealth and authority of Roman Catholic Church continued
Repression of lower classes continued Emergence of Ideologies Theorists saw 2 general ideologies as result of revolutions Conservatism: change should happen very gradually by general consensus Liberalism: Change = progress, conservatives try to maintain elite classes and avoid dealing with inequality Pro-Enlightenment values (morality and prosperity) Pro-republicanism and written constitutions Concern with civil rights (maybe not pol and soc rights, tho)
Post-Industrial Revolution: more dependence on govt for change and more concern with all rights (esp. suffrage) Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Slavery Different understandings of equality and freedom Abolition movement began in 1700s by freed slaves and Christian moralists Momentum after the revolution: 1807: Parliament voted to end slave trade (Wilberforce); others followed
Abolition of Slavery Bigger challenge: ending slavery itself because of owners property rights In Haiti and South American, mostly ended with independence In Mexico, ended by 1829 (to stop Americans form migrating) 1833: Parliament abolished and compensated owners (Wilberforce), others followed Freedom without equality: freed slaves rights were severely limited (no suffrage,
subordination, low paying jobs, few owned land) Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Womens Rights Most philosophes held conservative views of womens rights Womens rights movement: wanted equal access to education, professional occupations, suffrage, no absolutism in government or family 1700s: Britain, France, North America: M. Wollstonecraft access to education
Late 1700s: held important roles in revolution Gained, but then lost rights in French Rev. mid-1800s: grew alongside abolition movement Stanton organized conference in Seneca, NY demanding equality with men Limited success, esp. in education Intro: The Consolidation of National States in Europe Revolutions inspired citizens to develop national
identities Leads to nationalism, which can be used by political leaders Nations and Nationalism Previously, identity was based on family, clan, city, region, religion 1800s: national identity (based on language, customs, values, history, sometime religion) -> nationalism: political loyalty, belief in common destiny and interests, set territory, promoted by govt
(sometimes thru conflict with others) - showing distinctiveness through history, the arts = volksgeist (e.g., brothers Grimm stories) Political Nationalism 1800s: nationalism became more political than cultural Focus on increasing loyalty and solidarity, esp. among minorities or when under foreign rule -> tried to establish independent states and sometimes created conflict with other groups
E.g., Jews: nationalists encouraged distrust of minorities -> anti-semitism (e.g., pogroms) -> some migrated elsewhere (W. Europe/N.A.) and some started Zionist movement (formation of Jewish state in Palestine) The Emergence of National Communities Encouraged by French revolutions and subsequent wars and invasions-> patriotism with flags, anthem, etc. => national identity Congress of Vienna (1814-15): meeting of leaders of countries who had defeated Napoleon to restore order
Dismantled French empire, sovereignty to royal families, balance of power, suppress national identity in Austrian empire Limited success: balance of power until WWI, censorship and spies to suppress revolutions, but couldnt suppress formation of national identities and ideas of pop sov Nationalist Rebellions 1820s-40s: wave of rebellions 1821-30: Greeks gained independence (with help) from Ottomans
1830: France, Spain, Portugal, German states, Belgium, Italy, Poland wanted constitutional govt based on pop sov, or independence Largely unsuccessful 1848: brought down French monarchy, threatened Austrian empire, plus uprisings in Italy, Prussia, and German states 1849: rebellions put down, but ideas remained The Unification of Italy
Disunited since fall of Roman Empire -> regional kingdoms, city-states, ecclesiastical states With Congress of Vienna, Austria controlled north and Spain controlled south Increasing nationalism -> call for independence Di Cavor (prime minister of K. of Piedmont and Sardinia) united with nationalists With France, kicked Austria out in 1859 Garibaldi led red shirts in south conquering Sicily and southern Italy
Gave south to King of Piedmont and Sardinia -> Kingdom of Italy (continued to absorb more territory) The Unification of Germany Previously, semi-autonomous princes ruled under Holy Roman Emperor Otto von Bismarck (Prime Minister of Prussia): realpolitik, reformed and expanded army Provoked 3 wars (with Denmark, France, and Austria) and won -> increased nationalism
1871: Prussian king proclaimed himself emperor of the 2nd Reich (of all German-speaking people outside of Austria and Switzerland) Unifications of Italy and Germany In both cases, pol, diplomatic, and mil leadership combined with nationalism = lots of potential National identities developed: flags, anthems, holidays Also, took national censuses, schools, army recruitment
-> nation-state became principal form of political organization (and still is)
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