Rhetorical Devices

Rhetorical Devices

Rhetoric Terms Patrick Singer & Vighnesh Suresh Auxesis Definition: An artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. Example:It's a well hit ball, it's a long drive, it might be, it could be, it IS . . . a home run.

Bathos Definition: A descent in literature in which a poet / writer tries too hard to be passionate, and falls into stupid and trivial imagery. Example: Syllogism (siljizm)

Starts an argument with a reference to something general and from this it conclusion about something more specific All men are mortal is a major statement or premise which stands as a general fact. John is a man is minor statement or premise that is specific and John is mortal Syllepsis (slepsis) Two terms are commonly used interchangeably to refer to a figure of speech in which the same word is applied to two

others in different senses. I finally told Ross, late in the summer, that I was losing weight, and possibly my mind. my frip, Symploce (simplo,see) A repetition of words or phrases at both the beginning and end of successive clauses

"Who is here so base that would be a bondman? If any, speak; for him I have offended. Who is here so rude that would not be a Roman? If any speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so vile that will not love his country? If any, speak; for him have I offended." William Shakespeares, Julius Caesar Synathroesmus (si na TREES mus) The listing and piling up of words, namely adjectives

Hes a proud, haughty, consequential, turned-up nose peacock -Charles Dickens, Nicholas Nickleby Synecdoche (sinekdk) A whole is represented by a single part or a part is represented by the whole The White House declared a state of emergency.

Synesthesia (sinsTHZH) Characters or ideas appeal to and link multiple senses (smell, sight, hearing, taste, touch) at once Back to the region where the sun is silent -Dante, The Divine Comedy Attitude Definition: A writers manner / disposition

toward his subject matter, revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization. Example: "Truth be told, we have replaced problem with issue in our vocabulary. And issue is a euphemism." (Allison Amend) Bdelygmia Definition: A litany of abuse, a series of criticial

epithers, descriptions, or attributes. Example: "I've got a staff meeting to go to and so do you, you elitist, Harvard, fascist, missed-thedean's-list-two-semesters-in-a-row Yankee jackass." Bomphiologia Definition: A technique where the speaker brags

excessively in a self-aggrandizing manner. Example: Brachyology Definition: A concise, condensed, or abridged expression in speech, such as the omission

of understood words or parts of phrases. Example: The omission of good from good morning to get just morning. Cacophony Definition: The use of harsh, sharp, and unmelodious sounds, usually those of consonants, to achieve desired results such as a tongue twister or a disturbing,

objectionable atmosphere. Example: His fingers rapped and pounded the door, and his foot thumped against the allegory (n) A poem, play, picture, etc. in which the apparent meaning of the characters and events is used to symbolize a deeper moral or spiritual

meaning Ex: There is plenty of allegory that is also great Literature Syn: fable, emblem, parable anaphora (n) the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses

Ex: --------> amplification (n) material added to a statement, story, etc., in order to expand or clarify it;expansion of statement, narrative, etc., as for rhetorical purposes. Ex: In the revision, the story underwent considerable amplification. Syn: Enlarge, greater, stronger

anadiplosis (n) refers to the repetition of word(s) in successive clauses in such a way that the second clause starts w/same word that marked end of previous clause Ex: I like to do homework. Homework helps me learn. ambiguity (n) an unclear, indefinite, expression, meaning;

doubtfulness or uncertainty of intention or meaning. Ex: For him the drama is in contrasts, the meaning of ambiguity. Syn: vagueness, deceptiveness, equivocation analogy (n) a comparison in which an idea or thing is compared to another thing that is quite different from it

Ex: Atom structure= solar system o Nucleus= Sun o Electrons= planets revolving around Sun Syn: similarity, parallel, correlation allusion (n) a passing or casual reference; the act or practice of making a casual or indirect reference to

something. Ex: The novels title is an allusion to Shakespeare. Syn: elusion, metaphor anacoluthon (n) a figure of disorder in which syntax of a sentence doesnt correlate with whatever is expected Ex: I needed to buy a car. So I went to. Nevermind, I

already have a car. Syn: change Anastrophe Definition: (n.) a literary device wherein the order of the words are exchanged for emphasis Ex: Sure I am of this, that you have only to endure to conquer - Winston Churchill

Anecdote Definition: (n.) a short verbal accounting on a funny, amusing, interesting event or incident Ex: The Bear, the Wolf, the Hare, and the Vixen are playing cards. The Bear warns, shuffling: No cheating! I anyone is cheating, her smug red-furred face is gonna hurt! Antanagoge Definition: (n.) answering the charge of an adversary by a

countercharge. Ex: The is not pretty but it runs great. Antiphrasis Definition: (n.) the usually ironic or humorous use of words in senses opposite to the generally accepted meaning. Ex: The chihuahua was named Goliath. Antimetabole

Definition: (n.) a figure in which the same words or ideas are repeated in transposed order. Ex: Eat to live, not live to eat - Socrates Antanaclasis Definition: (n.) a type of verbal play in which one word is used in two contrasting senses. Ex: people on the go.go for coke (Coca Cola ad.)

Antistrophe Definition: (n.) the definition of words in reversed order. Ex: Selfishness is not living as one wishes to live. It is asking others to live as one wishes to live (Oscar wilde) Antithesis Definition: (n.) the rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words,clauses or sentences.

Ex: To err is human; to forgive divine. (Alexander Pope) Aphorism (n) Definition: an observation that contains a general truth; a short statement with scientific principle, typically by classical authors Example: less is more

Aporia (n) Definition: an expression of doubt or internal conflict in text, argument, or theory Example: To be or not to be: that is the question Apostrophe (n) Definition: when the author or speaker detaches himself and addresses an imaginary character

Example: In the song, Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, the child addresses a star (imaginary idea). Aposiopesis (n) Definition: figure of speech where the speaker breaks off abruptly, leaving the statement incomplete Ex: If you do that again, Ill-

Apophasis (n) Definition: denying one's intention to talk or write about a subject, but making the denial in such a way that the subject is actually discussed. Ex: I don't have time to list the numerous flaws in my opponent. Instead, I am going to talk about my own qualities that I would bring to the senate if you vote for me.

Archetype (n) Definition: a very typical example of a certain person or thing, a recurrent symbol or motif in literature, art, or mythology Ex: Romeo and Juliet are an archetype of eternal love and a star-crossed love story Aside (n) Definition: in drama, a few words or short passage

spoken by one character to the audience while the other actors on stage pretend their characters cannot hear the speakers words. Usually indicated by stage directions. Asyndeton (n) Definition: the artistic elimination of conjunctions in a sentence to create an effect of speed or simplicity. Ex: Veni. Vidi. Vici. I came. I saw. I

conquered. As opposed to I came, and then I saw, and then I conquered. Attitude Definition: A writers manner / disposition toward his subject matter, revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization. Example: "Truth be told, we have replaced

problem with issue in our vocabulary. And issue is a euphemism." (Allison Amend) Auxesis Definition: An artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. Example:It's a well hit ball, it's a long drive, it

might be, it could be, it IS . . . a home run. Bathos Definition: A descent in literature in which a poet / writer tries too hard to be passionate, and falls into stupid and trivial imagery.

Example: Bdelygmia Definition: A litany of abuse, a series of criticial epithers, descriptions, or attributes. Example: "I've got a staff meeting to go to and so do you, you elitist, Harvard, fascist, missed-the-dean's-list-two-semesters-in-arow Yankee jackass."

Bomphiologia Definition: A technique where the speaker brags excessively in a self-aggrandizing manner. Example:

Brachyology Definition: A concise, condensed, or abridged expression in speech, such as the omission of understood words or parts of phrases. Example: The omission of good from good morning to get just morning.

Cacophony Definition: The use of harsh, sharp, and unmelodious sounds, usually those of consonants, to achieve desired results such as a tongue twister or a disturbing, objectionable atmosphere. Example: His fingers rapped and pounded the door, and his foot thumped against the

Ceasura Definition: A break or interruption in the middle of a line or verse for the purpose of stopping the flow of sound or creating a dramatic pause with a strong impact. Can be marked by double lines: ||. Example: Mozart || oh how your music makes me soar!

Catachresis Definition: -the misapplication of a word or phrase Examples: -calling corpses in a graveyard inhabitants -calling Alex a man

Chiasmus Definition: -the reversal of the order of words in the second of two parallel phrases. Example: -he came in triumph, and in defeat departs Clause Definition:

-a group of words that contain a subject and a predicate Example -Alex had a pregnant girlfriend when he was 15. Climax Definition: -a series of related ideas so arranged that each surpasses the preceding in force or intensity.

-apparently climax is an anime, so no graphics on this slide Commoratio Origin: From the Latin meaning to delay or dwell on a point. Commoratio is basically when the author repeats the same idea with different words

Connotation Connotation-the emotion or association related to a word, can be either negative or positive. Consonance Repetition of sounds from consonants. This is normally in poetry. T was later when the summer went

Than when the cricket came, And yet we knew that gentle clock Meant nought but going home. T was sooner when the cricket went Than when the winter came, Yet that pathetic pendulum Keeps esoteric time. Dehortatio

A rhetorical term when trying to dissuade the reader. Its when the author says: NEVER feed a lion vegetables. NEVER give Isabella food, or else shell always come back for more Denotation The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion

attitude, or color Synonyms: definition, implication, meaning Deus Ex Machina The term is Latin for god out of the machine. It refers to the circumstance where an implausible concept for a divine

character is introduced into a storyline for the purpose of resolving its conflict and procuring an interesting outcome. Synonyms: divine intervention, contrivance Diacope repetition of a word or phrase broken

up by another word or words Synonym: tmesis Example: Free at last! Free at last! Thank god we are free at last! Dialect A regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or

vocabulary, especially a way of speaking that differs from the standard variety of the language. Synonyms: accent, pronunciation, jargon Example: "Oh!" said Martin, "I was born in Kent." Diatyposis

Recommending useful precepts or advice to someone else. Synonyms: advice, recommendations Example: Look up, laugh loud, talk big, keep the color in your cheek and the fire in your eye, adorn your person, maintain your health, your beauty and your animal spirits.

Diction Related to style, diction refers to the writers word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness. Synonyms: phrasing, turn of phrase, wording, language, usage,vocabulary, terminology,

expressions, idioms Example: In Ode to the Grecian Urn formal diction is used to achieve a certain effect. Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard Are sweeter: therefore, ye soft pipes, play on

The formal ye is used instead of informal you. The formal diction here is due to the respect for the urn. Didactic From the Greek, didactic literally means teaching. Didactic works have the primary aim of teaching

or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles. Synonyms: instructional, informative,improving, preceptive Example:All animals are equal but a few are more equal than others.George Orwell Distincio

Figure of explication in which an introductory reference to a word's meaning is made Synonyms: difference, contrast, dissimilarity, variance, variation Example: "by that I mean", "which is to say that", "that is" followed by a further elaboration of that word's meaning

Double Entendre Noun A word or phrase with two meanings, one of which is inappropriate. Syn: double meaning, ambiguity Ant: blunt Elegy

Noun A reflection typically as a lament for the deceased Syn: lament, requiem, threnody Ant: celebration, enjoyment, praise Enjambed Adjective A sudden ending in a sentence or a clause that continues in the next sentence.

Enumeratio Noun A list of objects, people, or places in epic poetry Ellipsis Noun The omission from speech of a word or words that are able to be understood by contextual clues

End-stopped Adjective A pause at the end of each line Epanalepsis Repetition of initial and ending of a word or words of a sentence or a clause. Syn: Repetition

Epigraph Noun A short quotation or saying that suggests the theme of the book or the chapter Syn: Thesis Epistrophe Definition: The repetition of a

word at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences (the opposite of anaphora) Synonyms: Epiphora, Antistrophe Example: Years ago, I looked like a child, talked like a child, thought like

a child. Epizeuxis Definition: The repetition of words in succession within the same sentence Synonym: diacope

Example: thoult come no more, Never, never, never, never! Expletive Definition: A single word or short phrase, usually interrupting normal syntax, used to lend emphasis to the words immediately proximate to the expletive.

Synonym: empty words Example: the lake was not, in fact, in the exact spot that the map showed. Euphemism Definition: Substitution of an

agreeable or at least non-offensive expression for one whose plainer meaning might be harsh or unpleasant Synonym: polite term, substitute, alternative, understatement

Example: Saying Grandfather has gone to a better place is a euphemism for Grandfather has died Exposition Definition: Used to introduce background information about events, settings, characters etc, to

the audience. Synonym: introduction Example: A long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away Fable Definition: A concise and brief

story intended to provide a moral lesson at the end. Synonym: tale or parable Example: Animal Farm by George Orwell Farce

Definition: A form of lowly comedy designed to provoke laughter through highly exaggerated caricatures of people in impossible or silly situations Synonym: mockery, travesty, absurdity, sham, joke

Example: physical bustle (slapstick), sexual misunderstandings and mix-ups, broad verbal humor (puns) Free verse Definition: Poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular meter

Synonyms: vers libre Example: Sunshine by The Poet Keri Invective an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attach using strong, abusive language. I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to

be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth. -Jonathan Swift (Gullivers Travels) Loose Sentence a type of sentence in which the main idea comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses.

Ex: "Halfway between West Egg and New York City sprawls a desolate plain, a gray valley where New York's ashes are dumped" -from "The Great Gatsby" by F. Scott Fitzgerald. Inversion Inversion, also known as anastrophe, is a technique which reverses the normal order of words to achieve a particular effect of emphasis

on meter Ex: The soldier strong (adj. after n. it describes) Ex: Worlds between (n. before prep.) Meiosis In rhetoric, meiosis is a euphemistic figure of speech that intentionally understates something or implies that it is lesser in significance or size than it really is. Ex: I am a very foolish fond old man. Fourscore and

upward, not an hour more or less; And, to deal plainly, I fear I am not in my perfect mind King Lear, by William Shakespeare litotes a figure of thought in which a point is affirmed by negating its opposite. It is a special form of understatement, where the surface denial serves, through ironic contrast, to reinforce the underlying assertion.

Ex: Hes no fool (which implies he is wise). Ex: Not uncommon (which implies that an act is frequent) melodrama a dramatic form characterized by excessive sentiment, exaggerated emotion, sensational and thrilling action, and an artificially happy ending Ex: Gothic Novels, Soap Operas, musicals,

cartoons, etc. Logical fallacy an error in reasoning which renders an argument invalid Ex: I figured that you couldnt possibly get it right, so I ignored your comment. Ex: When the fuel light goes on in my car, I soon run out of gas; therefore, the fuel light causes my

car to run out of gas. metanoia A Rhetorical term for the act of self-correction in speech or writing. Metanoia may involve amplifying or retracting, strengthening, or weakening a prior statement. You might have heard a pin fall--a pin! A feather-as he described the cruelties inflicted on muffin boys. -Nicholas Nickleby by Charles Dickens.

Hysteron proteron Definition: A figure of speech in which the natural or conventional order of words, actions, or ideas is reversed. Example: I was bred and born in the patch. Hubris Definition: Excessive pride or self-confidence Example: (in Greek tragedy) excessive pride toward or

defiance of the gods, leading to nemesis. Infer Definition: Conclude (information) from evidence and reasoning rather than from direct statements. Example: He will infer conclusions from secondary data. In medias res Definition: In or into the middle of a narrative or plot

Example: There was a hint of nervous throat-clearing as Neal Ascherson's unobtrusive script began in medias res. INDEPENDENT (1998) Sentential Adverbs Sentential adverbs are single words or short phrases, usually interrupting normal syntax, used to lend emphasis to the words near the adverb.

All truth is not, indeed, of equal importance; but if little violations are allowed, every violation will in time be thought little. - Samuel Johnson Synesthesia (sinsTHZH) Characters or ideas appeal to and link multiple senses (smell, sight, hearing, taste, touch) at once Back to the region where the sun is silent -Dante, The Divine Comedy

Restatement Restatement is expressing the same idea in different words to clarify and stress key points. We should chase the truth of our life; We should look for the meaning of our experience; We should capture our sense of life. Repetition Repetition repeats the same words or phrases a few times to

make an idea clearer. We should create a peace world for all the children in the world; We should create a blue sky for the birds; We should create a clean ocean for all the fishes. Sententia Sententia are popular proverbs, adages, aphorisms, maxims, or apophthegms often quoted without context. A house divided against itself cannot stand. -Abraham Lincoln

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. - Martin Luther King, Jr. Rhetorical Question A rhetorical question is a question asked by the author to the audience without the intention of receiving an answer. It usually introduces an idea about an argument or gives a greater impact on a statement previously said. JULIET: Thou art thyself, though not a Montague. Montague? It is nor hand, nor foot,

Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part Belonging to a man. O, be some other name! Whats in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet. Satire Satire is the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.

If this is going to be a Christian nation that doesn't help the poor, either we have to pretend that Jesus was just as selfish as we are, or we've got to acknowledge that He commanded us to love the poor and serve the needy without condition and then admit that we just don't want to do it. -Stephen Colbert Scesis Onomaton Scesis Onomaton emphasizes an idea by expressing it in a string of generally synonymous phrases or statements. Wendy lay there, motionless in a peaceful slumber, very still in

the arms of sleep. Sentential Adverbs Sentential adverbs are single words or short phrases, usually interrupting normal syntax, used to lend emphasis to the words near the adverb. All truth is not, indeed, of equal importance; but if little violations are allowed, every violation will in time be thought little. - Samuel Johnson

Hendiadys Definition: The expression of a single idea by two words connected with and Example: The blanket was nice and warm. Homily Definition: A usually short talk on a religious or moral topic

Example: Sermon Hyperbaton Definition: An inversion of the normal order of words, especially for the sake of emphasis Example: This I must see (instead of I must see this). Hypophora Definition: A rhetorical term for a strategy in which a

speaker raises a question and then immediately answers it. Example: Is going to school important? Of course, students need to get an education to be successful in life. Conceit def. A figure of speech in which two vastly different objects are likened together with

the help of similes or metaphors. If they be two, they are two so As stiff twin compasses are two; Thy soul, the fix'd foot, makes no show To move, but doth, if th' other do. And though it in the centre sit, Yet, when the other far doth roam,

It leans, and hearkens after it, And grows erect, as that comes home. Such wilt thou be to me, who must, Like th' other foot, obliquely run; Thy firmness makes my circle just, And makes me end where I begun. - John Donne, A Valediction

Forbidding Mourning Fallacy def. An erroneous argument dependent on an unsound or illogical contention.

Examples: Circular argument, illogical conclusions, slippery slope, appeal to popular opinion Epigram def. A terse, sage, or witty and often

paradoxical saying. Remember that time is money. Benjamin Franklin Jargon def. Specific phrases and words used in a particular situation, profession, or trade.

Examples: The 9-to-5, 104, AWOL, POTUS, and others. Juxtaposition def. A literary technique in which two or more ideas, places, characters, and their actions are placed side by side in a narrative or a poem for the

purpose of developing comparisons and contrasts. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the

season of Darkness - Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities Meter In poetry, the arrangement of syllables in a line into repeated patterns, known as feet. Syn: Rhythm, cadence, beat Ex: That time of year thou mayst in me behold That time | of year | thou mayst | in me |

behold Meter In poetry, the arrangement of syllables in a line into repeated patterns, known as feet. Syn: Rhythm, cadence, beat Ex: That time of year thou mayst in me behold That time | of year | thou mayst | in me | behold

Maxim def. A well-known phrase that expresses a general truth about life or a rule about behavior. A watched pot never boils. Unknown Reductio ad Absurdum

def. a manner of arguing something through demonstration of the absurdity of an opponents argument. "Another example of reductio ad absurdum is furnished by the reply to the arguments which attempt to prove by means of an

alleged cipher that Bacon wrote the plays attributed to Shakespeare. All the arguments adduced in favor of this proposition may, as its opponents contend, be used to prove that anybody wrote anything." (Adams Sherman Hill, The Principles of Rhetoric, rev. edition. American Book Company, 1895)

Slang def. Words that are not part of a standard vocabulary or language and are used informally. Bumped into this kid I knew, he often would walk strange So I ignored the blood on his laces so this cat could save face The dunks and the gaze stayed in an off grey haze

And the lump in his pocket talked to the ox that he clutched safe So I saluted him there, waiting for the A Trapped on the empty platform without the option to escape Gave him the standard: "Yo, what up man, how you landin'?" And the hypnotized response was no surprise: "I maintain" El-P, Tasmanian Pain Coaster Tapinosis

name calling undignified language that debases a person or thing ex: Phillips: Scab eater! Porter: Butt sniffer!

Phillips: Pus licker! Porter: Fart smeller! Tapinosis name calling undignified

language that debases a person or thing ex: Phillips: Scab eater! Porter: Butt sniffer! Phillips: Pus licker! Porter: Fart smeller! Tapinosis

name calling undignified language that debases a person or thing ex: Phillips: Scab eater! Porter: Butt sniffer! Phillips: Pus licker!

Porter: Fart smeller! Tapinosis name calling undignified language that debases a

person or thing ex: Phillips: Scab eater! Porter: Butt sniffer! Phillips: Pus licker! Porter: Fart smeller! Tapinosis

name calling undignified language that debases a person or thing ex: Phillips: Scab eater! Porter: Butt sniffer! Phillips: Pus licker! Porter: Fart smeller!

Tapinosis name calling undignified language that debases a person or thing

ex: Phillips: Scab eater! Porter: Butt sniffer! Phillips: Pus licker! Porter: Fart smeller! Tapinosis

name calling undignified language that debases a person or thing ex: Phillips: Scab eater! Porter: Butt sniffer! Phillips: Pus licker! Porter: Fart smeller!

Tapinosis name calling undignified language that debases a person or thing ex: Phillips: Scab eater!

Porter: Butt sniffer! Phillips: Pus licker! Porter: Fart smeller!

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