River Valley Civilizations - ODAYWORLD

River Valley Civilizations - ODAYWORLD

Features of Civilization Cities Organized Central governments Priest-kings were followed by military leaders who were followed by hereditary monarchs Bureaucracy - government organized into departments

Complex Religion Polytheistic belief in many gods that control the forces of nature Most gods behave like humans Features of Civilization Continued

Job Specialization/Social Classes ~ Hierarchy Priests Nobles Wealthy Merchants Government Workers Artisans (skilled craft workers) Soldiers Peasant Farmers

Slaves Features of Civilization Continued Public Works Irrigation Systems Roads Bridges

Defensive Walls Arts & Architecture Writing River Valley Civilizations

Sumer: 3500-2300BCE Ancient Egypt: 2700-1100BCE Indus Valley: 2500-1500BCE China: Shang 1650-1027BCE Zhou 1027-256BCE

Sumer had no barriers, which led to cultural diffusion (the spreading of ideas). Egypt, India, and China all had barriers, which led to geographic isolation. Benefits of Rivers

Rivers provide drinking water, fish, game, and transportation for people, armies, and products. Flooding deposits a layer of silt rich soil. To control floods and store water for the dry season dikes, reservoirs, and irrigation canals were constructed. Sumer

Cuneiform 3200BCE First-Known Writing Wedge-like shapes made on clay tablets British Museum

Ancient Egypt HIEROGLYPHICS Indus Valley Seals have not been deciphered. Shang China

ANCIENT CHARACTERS MODERN CHARACTERS Sumer

Tigris and Euphrates rivers unpredictable floods Fertile Crescent: Persian Gulf to Mediterranean Sea Mesopotamia (between the rivers)

Modern-day Iraq City-States constantly fought Ancient Egypt

Nile River 4160 miles longest in the world. Center of a ten-mile wide strip of fertile land. The desert protected against invasion, but limited settlement and the acquisition of new ideas.

Indus Valley Indus River modern-day Pakistan Barriers

Shang & Zhou China HUANG HE RIVER AKA YELLOW RIVER AKA RIVER OF SORROWS Sumerian Religion

Goal was to keep gods happy with sacrifices and ceremonies. Each city-state had a special god or goddess. Fear of natural disasters led to a pessimistic world view.

At death, people went to a huge cave filled with dust and silence. Inanna and Dumuzi Egyptian Religion

Village gods Afterlife = Good go to Happy Field of Food Bad go to crocodile-shaped eater of the dead. Mummification to provide a home for the soul. Wealthy entombed with everything needed for eternity.

Pharaoh considered a god son of AmonRe. Indus Valley Religion Figurines representing a mother goddess and a three-faced god have been discovered.

Sacred animals included the bull. Certain trees were revered. Chinese Religion & Philosophy

Shang Ti ruled over the other gods. Priests acted as intermediaries between humans and the gods. Veneration (respect) of ancestors because deceased relatives would intervene with the gods on your behalf. Household gods oversee activities in the

home. Taoism/Daoism Confucianism Legalism Zhou Government Mandate of

Heaven gods grant the right to rule to a dynasty Dynastic Cycle rise and fall of dynasties (ruling families)

Sumers Accomplishments

First Writing Cuneiform First Wheeled Vehicles carts and war chariots Basic Algebra & Geometry Number System based on 6 ~ 360-degree circle & 60-minute hour Accurate 12-month Calendar tracked seasons

Ziggurats First to use arches, columns, ramps Complex Irrigation Systems Ziggurat at Ur Sumerian Art Sumerian Art Egypts Accomplishments

Old Kingdom 2700-2200BCE Pyramid Age Middle Kingdom 2050-1800BCE Turbulent Age

Pharaohs, Mummification, Pyramids Major Construction land drainage, canal to Red Sea, temples at Luxor & Karnak New Kingdom 1550-1100BCE Empire Age

Empire at its largest from Kush to the Euphrates Famous Rulers: Akhenaton, Hatshepsut, Ramses II Egypts Accomplishments Continued

Women had high status Education for wealthy males Geometry Astronomy Engineering Painting, Sculpture, Literature Best medicine in the ancient world Tutankhamen

Son-in-law (maybe son) of Akhenaton ruled 1333-1323BCE. Died at 19.

Tomb discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter. Curse: many associated with the opening of the tomb died soon after fueling the legend ~ true cause = mold. Rosetta Stone

Written in Hieroglyphics (important and religious documents), Demotic (everyday script), and Greek (rulers at the time). Written in 196BCE and discovered by

one of Napoleons men in 1799. Egyptian Art Egyptian Statue Giza Valley of the Kings

Egyptian Architecture Luxor the real one! Obelisk Indus Valley Accomplishments

Discovered in 1922 Cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro and farming villages over 950 miles First city planning: grid pattern, uniform building style, rectangular city blocks, plumbing First to cultivate and weave cotton

Indus Valley Art Indus Valley Priest Chinas Accomplishments SHANG

Small kingdoms Silk Making Bronze Tools Characters Oracle Bones Questions written on bones or tortoise shells

Astronomy ZHOU Feudalism

Iron Tools & Weapons Use of Money First Books Soybeans Oracle Bone Shang Art Shang Elephant

Zhou Art Zhou Art

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