Features of Civilization Cities Organized Central governments Priest-kings were followed by military leaders who were followed by hereditary monarchs Bureaucracy - government organized into departments
Complex Religion Polytheistic belief in many gods that control the forces of nature Most gods behave like humans Features of Civilization Continued
Sumer had no barriers, which led to cultural diffusion (the spreading of ideas). Egypt, India, and China all had barriers, which led to geographic isolation. Benefits of Rivers
Rivers provide drinking water, fish, game, and transportation for people, armies, and products. Flooding deposits a layer of silt rich soil. To control floods and store water for the dry season dikes, reservoirs, and irrigation canals were constructed. Sumer
Cuneiform 3200BCE First-Known Writing Wedge-like shapes made on clay tablets British Museum
Ancient Egypt HIEROGLYPHICS Indus Valley Seals have not been deciphered. Shang China
ANCIENT CHARACTERS MODERN CHARACTERS Sumer
Tigris and Euphrates rivers unpredictable floods Fertile Crescent: Persian Gulf to Mediterranean Sea Mesopotamia (between the rivers)
Modern-day Iraq City-States constantly fought Ancient Egypt
Nile River 4160 miles longest in the world. Center of a ten-mile wide strip of fertile land. The desert protected against invasion, but limited settlement and the acquisition of new ideas.
Indus Valley Indus River modern-day Pakistan Barriers
Shang & Zhou China HUANG HE RIVER AKA YELLOW RIVER AKA RIVER OF SORROWS Sumerian Religion
Goal was to keep gods happy with sacrifices and ceremonies. Each city-state had a special god or goddess. Fear of natural disasters led to a pessimistic world view.
At death, people went to a huge cave filled with dust and silence. Inanna and Dumuzi Egyptian Religion
Village gods Afterlife = Good go to Happy Field of Food Bad go to crocodile-shaped eater of the dead. Mummification to provide a home for the soul. Wealthy entombed with everything needed for eternity.
Pharaoh considered a god son of AmonRe. Indus Valley Religion Figurines representing a mother goddess and a three-faced god have been discovered.
Sacred animals included the bull. Certain trees were revered. Chinese Religion & Philosophy
Shang Ti ruled over the other gods. Priests acted as intermediaries between humans and the gods. Veneration (respect) of ancestors because deceased relatives would intervene with the gods on your behalf. Household gods oversee activities in the
home. Taoism/Daoism Confucianism Legalism Zhou Government Mandate of
Heaven gods grant the right to rule to a dynasty Dynastic Cycle rise and fall of dynasties (ruling families)
First Writing Cuneiform First Wheeled Vehicles carts and war chariots Basic Algebra & Geometry Number System based on 6 ~ 360-degree circle & 60-minute hour Accurate 12-month Calendar tracked seasons
Ziggurats First to use arches, columns, ramps Complex Irrigation Systems Ziggurat at Ur Sumerian Art Sumerian Art Egypts Accomplishments
Old Kingdom 2700-2200BCE Pyramid Age Middle Kingdom 2050-1800BCE Turbulent Age
Pharaohs, Mummification, Pyramids Major Construction land drainage, canal to Red Sea, temples at Luxor & Karnak New Kingdom 1550-1100BCE Empire Age
Empire at its largest from Kush to the Euphrates Famous Rulers: Akhenaton, Hatshepsut, Ramses II Egypts Accomplishments Continued
Women had high status Education for wealthy males Geometry Astronomy Engineering Painting, Sculpture, Literature Best medicine in the ancient world Tutankhamen
Son-in-law (maybe son) of Akhenaton ruled 1333-1323BCE. Died at 19.
Tomb discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter. Curse: many associated with the opening of the tomb died soon after fueling the legend ~ true cause = mold. Rosetta Stone
Written in Hieroglyphics (important and religious documents), Demotic (everyday script), and Greek (rulers at the time). Written in 196BCE and discovered by
one of Napoleons men in 1799. Egyptian Art Egyptian Statue Giza Valley of the Kings
Egyptian Architecture Luxor the real one! Obelisk Indus Valley Accomplishments
Discovered in 1922 Cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro and farming villages over 950 miles First city planning: grid pattern, uniform building style, rectangular city blocks, plumbing First to cultivate and weave cotton
Indus Valley Art Indus Valley Priest Chinas Accomplishments SHANG
Small kingdoms Silk Making Bronze Tools Characters Oracle Bones Questions written on bones or tortoise shells
Astronomy ZHOU Feudalism
Iron Tools & Weapons Use of Money First Books Soybeans Oracle Bone Shang Art Shang Elephant
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