Keeping Complex Institutions River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia -- Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys (Southwest Asia) Egypt -- Nile River Valley and Delta (Africa) India -- Indus River Valley (South Asia) China -- Huang He Valley (East Asia)
Why River Valleys? Rich soils Irrigation for crops Easily protected Transportatio n Food sources Language and writing
Hieroglyphics: Egypt Cuneiform: Sumer Alphabet: Phoenicia The Fertile Crescent 4 Early River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) Egyptian Civilization
- Nile River Harappan Civilization - Indus River Ancient China - Huang He (Yellow) River PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Water Agriculture Ancient Civilization Needs: Trade Metals
Government Jobs Records Religion Economics Communication Military/Defense Warm-Up List the 4 major river valleys and civilizations that were
introduced last class. River Valley Social Developments Social Hereditary rulers (kings, pharaohs) Strict Class System Slavery was accepted River Valley Political Developments Worlds first states (citystates, kingdoms, empires)
Centralized government, often based on religious authority Written law codes (Ten Commandments, Code of Hammurabi) River Valley Economic Developments Metal tools and weapons
Increasing agriculture: Better tools, plows, irrigation Increasing trade along rivers and sea (Phoenicians) Worlds first cities Practiced slavery Finishing OUR Civilizations You will have civilization.
__ minutes to finish your Bring the finished product to me when you are done. Reminder: This IS a graded assignment (20 pts), so make sure it has all the required parts to get the highest grade possible! Water Ancient Civilization Agriculture
Trade Metals Government Jobs Records Religion Economics Communication Military/Defense Needs: Warm Up
What are some things that come to mind when you think of Egypt? Egypt Egypt on the Nile GEOGRAPHY Upper and Lower Egypt 1. Most of Egypts history focused around
around Nile delta which flows Lowerthe Egypt, into the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Upper Egypt developed later upstream 3. Nile provided reliable transportation - to go north, drift with the current toward the -sea to go south, sail catching the Mediterranean breeze
Environment 1. Unlike Mesopotamia, the Nile was predictable 2. Deserts on both sides of Nile - provided natural protection against invaders - also reduced interaction with other people Egypt would develop mostly in isolation and therefore, a culture that PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
UNITED EGYPTS GOVERNMENT The Pharaoh [means, royal house] the ruler of Egypt 1. were considered gods; served both political and religious roles Define Type of government where the political rulers are type of thought to be divinely-guided, or even divine government 2. themselves Believed each
ruled even after death, because is apharaoh theocracy. they all possessed the same eternal spirit = ka; and being god, naturally bore full responsibility for Egypts wellbeing. 3. Therefore, Pharaohs tomb very important, because it was still a place of rule. massive tombs 4. Built The pyramids were called pyramids. built mainly in the Old Kingdom Period.
The Great Pyramids at Giza. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. A modern-day Egyptian guide uses his lantern to illuminate the amazing hieroglyphic text covering the walls deep within the tunnels below the Saqqara pyramid. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Sphinx and Pyramid of Khafre at Giza. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Ramses II (1304 1237 BCE ) Looki n good for
3200 Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile IV. EGYPTIAN WRITING A. Pictographs developed into hieroglyphics B. Written on Papyrus, unfurled reed from the Nile, dried into strips C. Deciphering hieroglyphics
The Rosetta Stone, discovered in 1799 A.D. Why was the knowledge of reading hieroglyphics LOST in the first place? In the first century A.D. when Christianity arrived in Egypt, it was common for the Christian movement to remove / destroy the religious images, writings, and priesthood of the former religion in the region. During this chaotic time of transition, the literate priests and scribes were mostly killed off and the knowledge of hieroglyphics was lost for almost 1,500 years. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Rosetta Stone, discovered in 1799 A.D. The Rosetta Stone can be viewed by tourists today in the British Museum. Religious Traditions Polytheism was practiced by most early civilizations. Monotheism was practiced by the Hebrews.
Warm Up: Give an example of river valley developments : Social Economic Political How would we classify religions of most early civilizations? When you think of Ancient Egypt, what kinds of
things come to mind? List them! Pyramid Construction http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_pyrami ds The great Pyramids at Giza, Egypt Egyptian Mythology http://gwydir.demon.co.uk/jo/egypt/index.htm Closing Remarks & Questions
What have we covered today? Civilization, Pyramids, Mythology What questions remain unanswered? Which questions can I answer? Warm Up: Where is Mesopotamia? (what region of the world?) What modern-day countries are within Mesopotamias ancient
borders? What do you know about ancient Mesopotamia? Mesopotamia The Ziggurat at Ur was first excavated by British archaeologist Woolley in 1923. Reign of Hammurabi Famous Code of Law he wisely took all the laws of the regions
city-states and unified them into one code. This helped unify the region. Engraved in stone, erected all over the empire. Why do you think Hammurabi thought it important to place all the cities within his Empire under the same uniform code of laws? A total of 282 laws are etched on this 7 ft. 5 in. tall black basalt pillar. The top portion, shown here, depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law. Although Hammurabi's Code is not the first code of laws (the first records date four centuries earlier), it is the best preserved legal document reflecting the social
structure of Babylon during Hammurabi's rule. This amazing find was discovered in 1901 and today is in the famous Louvre Museum in Paris, France. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. DID YOU KNOW Like many ancient civilizations, the Sumerians also had a flood story. Thats not surprising given their challenging environment sitting between two unpredictable riversin their view, such a cataclysmic event did, indeed, destroy their entire world. The Epic of Gilgamesh is, perhaps, the oldest written story on Earth. It comes to us from ancient Sumeria, and was originally written on 12 clay tablets in cuneiform script. It is about the adventures of the
cruel King Gilgamesh of Uruk (ca. 2750 and 2500 BCE). In tablet XI we read about Per-napishtim, a man who built a boat and was saved from a great flood brought about by angry gods. You can compare Per-napishtims story to Noahs story in the biblical book of Genesis as well as a flood story from India. Tablet XI PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. India & China The Indus Valley civilization flourished around 2,500 B.C. in the western part of South Asia,
in what today is Pakistan and western India. It is often referred to as Harappan Civilization after its first discovered city, Harappa. The nearby city of MohenjoDaro is the largest and most familiar archaeological dig in this region. The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. This ancient civilization was not discovered until the 1920's. Most of its ruins, including
major cities, remain to be excavated. Left: The excavated ruins of Mohenjodaro. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. CH 2: Sec. 3 Planned Cities on the Indus 1. What challenges did the people along the Indus River face? unpredictable rivers (similar situation to Mesopotamia region) strong winds / monsoons
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. CH 2: Sec. 3 Planned Cities on the Indus Began farming along Indus about 3,200 B.C. Size of settled region larger than Egypt or Mesopotamia. Careful city planners; laid out in grid with a defendable citadel. Engineered sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems. Peaceful people few weapons found Similarity in housing indicates little
differences between social classes. Religious objects and symbols clearly Left: The linked to Hinduism. excavated Did you know? Hinduism is considered to be the worlds oldest religion.
ruins of Mohenjodar o one of several planned cities laid out on a grid system in the Indus region. Yet its origins have long Indus
been Harappan script has a mystery. not been Harappan deciphered. Typical dwellling This means basic questions Above: Terracota household statues such as this about female
the people who created this goddess are found frequently in highlyIscomplex culture the region. this religious icon an early
Does modern areShiva? still unanswered. Hinduism have its origins in Harappan civilization? CH 2: Sec. 3 Planned Cities on the Indus The river may have changed course, natural disaster (caused by heavy monsoons) The people may have overworked the land (overcutting trees, overgrazed, overfarmed land depleting nutrients)
Invaders (What is the disputed (A.I.T.) Aryan Invasion Theory?) Harappans abandoning their city. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. PLEASE USE A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER THAT YOU CAN TURN IN Warm Up: What were the two main cities in Ancient
India that we discussed last class? What is another name for the Indus River Valley Civilization? What kinds of problems did the Ancient Indus Civilization face? SOL INFO (Indus Civ) Physical barriers, such as the Himalayas, the Hindu Kush, and the Indian Ocean, made
invasion difficult. Mountain passes in the Hindu Kush provided migration routes into the Indian subcontinent. The Indus and Ganges were the important rivers in the Indian subcontinent. Ancient India Information Aryans (Indo-Aryans) Migration, assertion of dominance Caste system, which influenced all social interactions and choices of
occupations Mauryan Empire - Ashoka political unification of India Contributions: Spread of Buddhism, free hospitals, veterinary clinics, good roads Gupta Empire Golden Age of classical Indian culture Contributions: Mathematics (concept of zero), medical advances (setting bones), astronomy (concept of a round earth), new textiles, literature
Chinese script is unique, isnt it? Think about other elements of Chinese culture: Chinese architecture, music, technology, Gobieastern Desert belief dress and fashion, and systems Taklimakan Desert Also unique! Himalaya Mts.
Pacifi c Ocean CH 2: River Dynasties in China 1. Why did China develop apart from other cultures? Chinas geography ocean, desert, high mountains, isolated China. Isolated geographically, cut off from trade, there would be little opportunity for cultural diffusion in Chinas case. Developing in a vacuum, Chinas civilization would stand out as the most unique of our worlds early civilizations. PEAC
LOVE TOLERANCE LUCK ETERNITY CH 2: River Dynasties in China] First written records - calligraphy writing and paper making
Sharp division between kings nobles and the peasants Wood used as building material (not mud-dried bricks as in other regions) Peasants used wooden tools Shang made magnificent bronze weapons and ceremonial vessels CH 2: River Dynasties in China From very early on, the idea of the
group / community more important than the idea of individual/ or any single person. Emphasis on family, respect of parents Family emphasized in religion too ancestor worship. Oracle bones used to consult the gods Chinese writing unique to others. Symbols stood for ideas, not sounds. This allowed the many different groups who spoke different languages to all
understand the same writing system. Oracle bone PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Warm Up 1. NAME the 2 important rivers of the Indus Civilization. 2. LIST the 3 groups/empires of ancient India and give an example of a contribution associated with each group. 3. EXAMINE religions of India. Name the two religions that started there and give a fact about each.
4. EXPLAIN why Chinese Civilization developed so differently from the other early civilizations? 5. COMPARE/CONTRAST the language and writing system of ancient China to the other ones we have studied. What makes them so different? Why did it develop in such a different way? 6. In your opinion Which civilization that we have studied is the one you would have wanted to be a part of? EXPLAIN WHY! SUPPORT YOUR OPINION! Try YES! Again Neolithic ca. 12,000 - 2000 B.C.
Xia ca. 2100-1800 B.C. Shang 1700-1027 B.C. Western Zhou 1027-771 B.C. Ancient China Eastern Zhou 770-221 B.C. Warring States period 475-221 B.C.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Neolithic ca. 12,000 - 2000 B.C. Xia ca. 2100-1800 B.C. Shang 1700-1027 B.C. Western Zhou 1027-771 B.C. Ancient China PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Eastern Zhou
770-221 B.C. Warring States period 475-221 B.C. Neolithic 12,000 - 2000 B.C. Xia 2100-1800 B.C. Shang 1700-1027 B.C. Western Zhou 1027-771 B.C. Ancient China
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Eastern Zhou 770-221 B.C. Warring States period 475-221 B.C. China SOL Migratory invaders raided Chinese settlements from the north. Qin Shi Huangdi built the Great Wall as a line of defense against invasions. China was governed by a succession of ruling
families called dynasties. Chinese rulers were considered divine, but they served under a Mandate of Heaven only as long as their rule was just. The Silk Road facilitated trade and contact between China and other cultures as far away as Rome. Contributions of Ancient China Civil service system Paper Porcelain Silk
CH 2: River Dynasties in China 4. Name two important changes brought about by the While theZhou. Zhou did simply adopt much of old Shang culture, they also did introduce new things: Above: Jade disk, Chinas Zhou period. Below: Bronze helmet and
sword, Zhou period. A new idea of royalty that claimed rulers got their authority from heaven. This was known as the Mandate from Heaven. From this time on the Chinese would believe in divine rule. This meant disasters could be blamed on the rulers
and they would frequently be replaced. This led to a pattern of rise and fall of dynasties in China known as the dynastic cycle. The Zhou gave large regions of land and privileges to a select few nobles who then owed loyalty to the king PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The first 300 years of Zhou rule were relatively peaceful and stable. But that changed around 771 B.C.E. as nomadic tribes invaded
from the north and as the noble families began to fight for power against one another. The crossbow is introduced in China during this time of great conflict and chaos known as the Period of Warring States. Chinese values collapsed during this period of arrogance, chaos, and defiance. Will China be saved? By who? ..stay tuned. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Other early civilizations (about 2000 to 500
B.C.E.) Hebrews settled between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley (part of Fertile Crescent in Southwest Asia). Phoenicians settled along the Mediterranean coast (part of Fertile Crescent in Southwest Asia). Nubia was located on the upper (southern) Nile River (Africa).
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