# rlg

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Institute of Technology 1617 Napiers Bones : John Napier 1642 Calculator : Blaise Pascal 1801 Card of holes for weaving pattern : Joseph Jacquard. 1823-24 Analytical Engine(1st Computer) : Charles Babbage. Institute of Technology

Objectives At the end of this course, students will be able to do the following:

Definition of Computer Types of computers . Input & output devices Memory and processing Device Storage Devices Introduction to Operating System Institute of Technology Introduction to computer computerisisan anelectronic

electronicdevice, device,which which AAcomputer willoperate operateon onarithmetic arithmeticand andLogical Logical will

operations. operations. Institute of Technology A primitive computer A basic computer (primitive) consists of three major components: o CPU (Central Processing Unit) o IO (Input/Output) o Memory

Input CPU Output Memory Data comes through input and the CPU process it based on a program in memory. And the (result) output returned to memory or presented to the user.

Institute of Technology MEMORY

BIT = One Binary Digit 0 or 1 BYTE = 08 Bits (NIBBLE= 4 Bits) KILOBYTE=1024BYTES MEGABYTE=1024KB GIGABYTE=1024MB TERABYTE=1024GB PETABYTE=1024TB Institute of Technology

COMPUTER GENERATIONS FIRST GENERATION : 1949-54 SECOND GENERATION :1954-64 THIRD GENERATION :1964-80 FOURTH GENERATION :1980-2000

FIFTH GENARATION:2000 ONWARDS Institute of Technology Types of computers Computer types can be divided into 3 categories according to electronic nature. Types of computers are classified according to how a particular Computer functions. These computer types are: Analogue Computers

Digital Computers Hybrid Computers Institute of Technology ANALOGUE COMPUTER (ANALOG) Analogue computer uses analogue signals that are represented by a continuous set of varying voltages in scientific research centers ,hospitals and flight centers. Analogue computer types program arithmetic and

logical operations by measuring physical changes i.e. temperatures or pressure. Institute of Technology Image of analogue computers Institute of Technology Image of analogue computers Institute of Technology

Image of analogue computers Institute of Technology Digital computer With these types of computers operation are on electrical input that can attain two inputs, states of ON=1 and state of OFF = 0. With digital type of computers data is represented by digital of 0 and 1 or off state and on state. Digital computer type recognizes data by counting discrete

signal of (0 0r 1), they are high speed programmable; they compute values and stores results. Institute of Technology Image of a digital computer Institute of Technology Image of a digital computer Institute of Technology

HYBRID COMPUTER Hybrid computer types are very unique, in the sense that they combined both analogue and digital features and operations. Hybrid computers operate by using digital to analogue convertor and analogue to digital convertor. E.g. personal computer Institute of Technology

IMAGES OF HYBRID COMPUTER HYBRID COMPUTER HYBRID COMPUTER Institute of Technology Classification of Computers The classification of computers according to size /

appearance relates to the grouping of computers according to their physical structure. The computer classification from the largest to the smallest single unit is as follows: Supercomputers, Mainframe Computers, Mini Computers, and Micro Computers Institute of Technology Supercomputers: Super computer are the fastest high capacity

computers and very expensive. Used for calculating speed and volumes in weather forecasting, oil exploitation, aircraft designing and handle about 1000 user at a time. Institute of Technology An example of a supper computer Institute of Technology

Mainframe computers Mainframe computers are powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications. Typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing. Institute of Technology

An example of a mainframe computer Institute of Technology An example of a mainframe computer Institute of Technology MINI COMPUTER . Minicomputer are mid-range called

refrigerator machine with less storage capacity and processing speed. Used by small companies for accounting and finance, and handle about 4 to 100 users at a time. Institute of Technology An example of a mini computer Institute of Technology

MICRO COMPUTER Personal Computer is the smallest with low storage capacity and processing speed. It support only one monitor, key board and a user at a time. Institute of Technology EXAMPLE OF MICRO COMPUTERS

Institute of Technology Basic parts of a computer There are four (4) basic parts of a computer: Mouse Keyboard Monitor System Unit Institute of Technology

Mouse A mouse is a hand-held or an input device that controls the movement of pointer on the screen. Position the pointer on an object is known as pointing. Mouse Institute of Technology Types of Mouse There are many types of computer mice, but the three (3)common types are namely:

Base on their ports 1) PS/2 mouse 2) USB mouse 3)

Serial mouse Institute of Technology Types of Mouse There are many types of computer mice, but the three (3)common types are namely: Base on their designed standard mouse optical mouse wireless mouse

Institute of Technology Parts of a mouse Plastic case (body) Institute of Technology keyboard The keyboard is the primary input device for entering data and executing commands. The keyboard is laid out like the keys on a typewriter.

It has 102 to 110 keys and with 256 to 260 characters. Institute of Technology Parts of a keyboard The computer keyboard is divided into five main parts as showed below Home Keys Calculator Keys Function Keys

Arrow Keys Typing Standard Key Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN Monitor Is a display unit used to view the content of the system unit. The screen is made up of red, green and blue dots. The video card send signals out to the monitor. The information video card sends

control which dots are light up and how bright they are determines the picture you see. Another name for a monitor is video display terminal (VDT) or Visual display unit (VDU). Institute of Technology TYPES OF MONITOR There are two (2) types of monitor as follows: Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)

Liquid crystal Display (LCD) Institute of Technology LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) The LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). This is also called Flat

screen. It has the following advantages over the CRT: Takes up less space Lighter in weight Uses less power Institute of Technology SYSTEM UNIT It is also known as a base unit, is the main body of a desktop computer.

System Unit It consisting of a plastic case containing the motherboard, power supply, cooling fans, memory models and expansion cards that are plugged into the motherboard, such as video and network card. Institute of Technology TYPES OF SYSTEM UNIT They are two (2) types of system unit

Institute of Technology COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM UNIT Hard Disk Power Pack Cmon Battery CD-ROM

Drive Cooling Fan Floppy Disk Drive Heat Sink CPU

Video Card (VGA) Mother Board Memory Ribbon Cables Institute of Technology

MOTHERBOARD The motherboard is the main circuit board in which all component communicate through in the PC. Every components either directly plugging into it or communicating through the motherboards ports. Institute of Technology CMOS BATTERY A tiny device on the motherboard that create a

computer system to run smoothly. Its function is to keep the computer date and time up till date. Institute of Technology CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) A CPU is the brain that runs a computer. CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the core chip to a computer. It process data to information which is then

outputted to the user. Another name for a CPU is Processor Institute of Technology COOLING FAN The cooling fan produce air to cool the heat sink so it can absorb more heat from the processor (CPU) The CPU - produce a ton of heat and cause overheating to the machine if not check will crash the computer.

Institute of Technology HARD DISK DRIVE (HDD) The hard disk drive is the main primarily storage device for the computer system that stores all data and files. Also known as the "C drive" because Microsoft assigns the "C" drive letter to the primary partition(division) by default on the primary hard drive. Institute of Technology Parts of a Hard Disk Drive

Institute of Technology CD-ROM DRIVE A CD drive is connected to a computer and on which a CD-ROM can be played (computer science) a device that writes data onto or reads data from a storage medium. rive D r e

d Recor i t l u DVD M Institute of Technology CD-ROM Drive

FLOPPY DISK DRIVE(FDD) It is a small drive that takes a little plastic square shaped disks. Is a place where a floppy disk(a diskette) is inserted (removable storage device). They are out of date, pen drives can take much data/information than diskette. Today new computers are sold without a floppy disk drive. Floppy Disk Drive Institute of Technology

FLOPPY DISKETTE It is a magnetic disc with a microfilm and capable of storing information depending on the density. They are read and written by a floppy disk drive (FDD). It is slotted into the floppy disk drive (Drive A: B: ) computer to access the information stored on it. Institute of Technology

TYPE OF FLOPPY DISKETTE There are two (2) types of floppy diskettes as follow: 3 floppy diskette 5 floppy diskette

Institute of Technology 3 FLOPPY DISKETTE It is a magnetic disc with a microfilm and capable of storing information depending on the density, slotted into the floppy disk drive (Drive A:)

3 Floppy Diskette Capable of storing from 400K to 1.4MB of data. The common once are 720K (double-density) and 1.44MB (high-density). Macintoshes support disks of 400K, 800K, and 1.2MB. Institute of Technology 5 FLOPPY DISKETTE This is also a magnetic disc with a microfilm and capable of storing information depending on the density, slotted into the diskette drive (Drive B:)

5 Floppy Diskette It is capable of storing between 100K and 1.2MB (megabytes) of data. The most common sizes are 360K and 1.2MB. Institute of Technology MEMORY The computer memory is a temporary storage device which holds the data and instructions that (CPU) needs to process.

Before a program can be run, it must be loaded from a storage medium (hard disk) into the memory for CPU to have direct access to it. Memory is a necessity to every computer. It is primary storage device, it can be either ROM or RAM Institute of Technology TYPES OF MEMORY There are two (2) main types of computer memory as follow: Read Only Memory (ROM)

Random Access Memory (RAM) Institute of Technology READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM) The Read-Only Memory (ROM) stores the BIOS that runs when the computer is powered on. Or otherwise begins execution, a process known as Bootstrapping, or "booting" or "booting up".

Institute of Technology RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) RAM is the working memory of a computer system that stores input data, intermediate results, programs, and other information temporarily. It can be read and written. It is volatile, that is all data will be erased when the power is turned off. Institute of Technology

POWER SUPPLY (POWER PACK) ide aP ow er P ac

k A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating current (AC) electric power to low-voltage direct current (DC) power for the internal components of the computer. Is mostly found in the system unit. Ins ck Power Pa Institute of Technology

VIDEO CARD (VGA) The video card is responsible for what you see on the monitor. The main function of the video card is to generate and output images to the computer screen. Better graphics card equals better performance when playing games or working on a high resolution monitor. Institute of Technology TYPE OF VIDEO CARDS (VGA)

AGP Video Card PCI Express Video Card PCI Video Card Institute of Technology PERIPHERAL DEVICES Peripheral device are optional device connected to the computer externally such as printer, scanner, tape device, microphone and external modem.

And internal such as CD-ROM or internal modem and CPU, expansion cards. Peripheral devices are classified base on their functions. Printer Scanner Projector Web Cam Microphone

Light Pen Institute of Technology Speakers Plotter Wireless Router PRINTER

This device is used to print a report or hardcopy, after data or information has been processes. Printers are designed to print in any colour, but some, just one colour i.e. Black. A print out from the printer is term as hardcopy. Canon SELPHY DS810 Prints any colour Institute of Technology HP Laser Jet 2055 Prints only black

SCANNER A scanner is a device that is able to transfer images or pictures in to the computer to be store. Such images or pictures are usually not found in the computer; thus the need to be scan. HP Scanjet 3670 HP ScanJet 4370 Institute of Technology

INPUT DEVICE Input devices are devices used to feed information or provide the control signals to the computer. Keyboard and the Mouse are the examples of the input devices. Microphone Keyboard Mouse

Light Pen Scanner Web Cam Institute of Technology OUTPUT DEVICES Output devices are devices used to display results. Printer, speaker and the monitor are the examples of the output devices.

Projector Monitor Plotter Printer Speaker Institute of Technology Plotter

Plotters were the first type of printer that could print with colour and render graphics and full-size engineering drawing. But plotter are much more expensive than printers. Plotter Institute of Technology Projector A Projector is an output device that project and display video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat

form. Projector Institute of Technology Sound Speakers Sound Speakers enable the computer user (liveware) to hear sound from the computer. Sound speakers

Institute of Technology INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICE Referred to as a IO device, an input/output device is a hardware device that accepts inputted information and also has the capability of outputting that information. Network Card Touch Screen Photocopier

Wireless Card Wireless Router Sound Card Modem Institute of Technology SOUND CARD Also known as an audio card, is an internal computer expansion card that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer

TOUCH SCREEN It is display screen that allows commands to be entered by touching the screen. Touch screens are generally used in the locations such as airports and hotels to display certain type of menu. Institute of Technology STORAGE DEVICES A storage device is a device that is used to store the information such as hard disk drive, flash drive, floppy disk and the tape drive.

Secure Digital Card Hard Disk Pen Drive Floppy Diskette Compact Disc

Secure Digital Card Blu-ray DVD Zip Disk PC Card Institute of Technology Digital Versatile Disc Or

Digital Video Disc BLU-RAY DVD Blu-ray Disc (official abbreviation BD) is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the DVD format. The plastic disc is 120 mm in diameter and 1.2 mm thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Blu-ray Discs contain 25 GB (23.31 GB) per layer, with dual layer discs (50 GB) being the norm for feature-length video discs. Triple layer discs (100 GB) and quadruple layers (128 GB) are available for BDXL Blu-ray re-writer drives .

Philips Double Layer 50GB Institute of Technology THE ZIP DISK A zip disk is a computer hardware device that stores data. A zip disk drive is somewhat like floppy disk drive, only that the size of disks inserted into the devices are different. Where a normal floppy disk can hold about 1.44 megabytes of

data, a zip disk can hold around 100 megabytes of data Zip Disk Institute of Technology USER INTERFACE User interface is the space where interaction between the user and the computer occurs. TYPES OF USER INTERFACE There are two types of user interfaces between a computer application and

the user. They are: Graphical User Interface (GUI) Character User Interface (CUI) or Command Line Interface (CLI) Institute of Technology GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) Allows users to interact with the computer, using icons, windows and menus, with the help of a pointing device, such as a mouse. In GUI more task can run simultaneously and user friendly interface. Application : Windows (Operating System)

Institute of Technology Character User Interface (CUI) An interface that allows users to interact with the computer, using codes (text), with the help of a Ankeyboard. interface that allows users to interact with the computer, using codes (text), with the help of a keyboard. In CUI one task run at a time. Anther name for Character user interface is Command Line Interface In (CLI) CUI one task run at a time. Anther name for Character user interface is Command Line Interface

(CLI) Application : MS Dos (Operating System) Application : MS Dos (Operating System) Institute of Technology BOOT Boot is the process of turning on the computer. To do this, press the power switch that is used to put the unit on. Nowadays, it is located in front of the computer. Pushing it would start the computer.

System Unit Power Monitor Power Institute of Technology Types of booting There are two types of booting namely: o Cool Booting

o Warm Booting Cool booting is the process of putting the switch of the system unit and the monitor on. Warm booting is the process of restarting the computer. Institute of Technology process of booting In computing, booting (also known as booting up) is a process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. A boot sequence is the initial set of operations that the computer performs

when power is switched on. The boot loader typically loads the main operating system for the computer. Information about computer Welcome screen Checking components Desktop

Institute of Technology Type of Operating system Desktop The Desktop is a graphical user interface which serves as a communication link between the computer and the user (live ware) Institute of Technology Icons

Wallpaper Parts of the desktop Taskbar Notification area Start button Institute of Technology Parts of the desktop

Start button -Provides access to Windows XP programs, documents, and information on the Internet. (Generally located in the bottom left corner of the desktop and the far left of the Task bar.) Taskbar -Contains buttons that give you quick access to common tools and the programs currently running. (Located across the bottom of the desktop.) Icons are small pictures used to represent programs. Notification Area located at the bottom right corner of the taskbar tell the user what ever is happening in the computer. Taskbar Pointer -A small object, such as an arrow, that moves on the screen when

you move the mouse. Institute of Technology Window A window is a rectangular area of the screen in which you view program folders, files, or icons. The window is made up of several components that are the same for all windows in Windows XP and Windows applications and make it easy for you to manage your work. Institute of Technology

PARTS OF A WINDOW Institute of Technology PARTS OF A WINDOW Menu bar -Contains the titles of menus, such as File, Edit, and Help. (Located along the top of the window under the Title bar.) Control Menu Icon-Drop-down menu on the Title bar with the Minimize, Maximize/Restore, Close, Move and Size functions. (Located on the left side of the Title bar)

Title bar -Contains the window title and basic window control buttons. (Located at the top of the window.) Control Menu Icon in every window, a little icon in the upper-left corner that can be used to control the window. Clicking the icon opens the windows control menu while double clicking the icon is a shortcut for closing the window. Institute of Technology PARTS OF A WINDOW Minimize button a small minus button at the top right window which is used

to reduce the window on to the taskbar as an icon ( ) Maximize button two small ( ) rectangular boxes overlap together which is used to increase the size of your windows to fill the screen Close button a small ( x )button located at the top right corner of the window used to exit out off the window Institute of Technology

COMPUTER WARES Computer wares refers to the physical, internal and living parts that makes a computer to work. There are three(3) types of computer wares. (i) hardware (ii) software (iii) live ware Institute of Technology

Hardware Hardware the physical parts of a computer you can see, torch and feel. e.g. system unit, monitor, keyboard, mouse. etc. Software the internal programs that tell a computer what to do and how to do it, or runs on hardware. E.g. operating system (windows xp, Linux, ubuntu, zubuntu, window 7. etc.) live ware human beings ( man ,woman, children) that create and use computers. Institute of Technology

SOFTWARE Software is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. In other words, software is a general name given to all computer program. Institute of Technology TYPES OF SOFTWARE

There are two (2) types of computer software namely: I. System Software II. Application Software Institute of Technology

System software System software also known as operating system(o s) the soul of a computer. This program controls the affairs of the computer and manage the hardware resources. E.g. MS DOS, Windows, Linux, Apple, Macintosh, OS/2 etc. Without this program one can not use the computer.

Means the operating system have to be installed before the computer can be use, even before the applications. Institute of Technology APPLICATION SOFTWARE Application Software is a computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include: a) Enterprise software, b) Accounting software,

c) Office suites, d) Graphics software e) And media player. etc. Institute of Technology TYPES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE There are three (3) types of application software namely: 1. End-user software ( can be downloaded from internet freely) 2. Packaged software (created for selling)

3. Custom-made software (designed purposely for a particular organization) 4. Utility software for protecting your pc. E.g. Antivirus. Institute of Technology operating system An operating system (OS) is a set of programs that manage computer hardware resources and provide common services for application software. The operating system is the most important type of system

software in a computer system. A user cannot run an application program on the computer without an operating system, unless the application program is self booting. Institute of Technology Thank You Institute of Technology

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