Russia - PC\|MAC

Russia - PC\|MAC

Russia Period 3 (Mongols have huge impact) Government Decentralized control by local nobles Conquered by Mongols- must pay tribute to Mongols Mongols keep Russians isolated- (will be behind rest of Europe through per 5) out of western European affairs like Crusades, Renaissance (4) Also keeps rest of Europe from invading Russia Economic Mongol invasion changes economic centers from Kiev to Moscow & Novgorod Pax Mongolia- Mongols connect Russian princes to Silk Road $$$ Culture/Social Status Convert to Eastern Orthodox Church like Byzantine Empire- faith brought by Russian merchantsunlike rest of Europe or Asia

Period 4 Government centralizing Ivan the Great Assumed title- Czar- like Caesar Consolidated his lands Encouraged peasants to move to frontier to expand his holdings they were granted their freedom from serfdom= Cossacks Ivan IV(the terrible) Economy based on agriculture Trouble with boyars (Russian nobles)- redistributed their land to a new aristocratic group Romanovs take power next Period 4 Peter the Great (1682-1724)-goal is to Expanding westernize Built St. Petersburgnew port (always looking for warm water port)

Built navy Westernize Russia (but only really touched the elite & military) Brought western European engineers, military strategists, builds to Russia Improved army & Built 1st Russian Navy Strengthened mining industry to build navy Made French the language of the royal court Required boyars to shave beards and wear western clothes (example of power over boyars) Upper class women could go to court and wear western dress Period 5 Government: Absolute monarchy (Czar from Caesar)-Romanov Family Expanding territory Failure to change politically (remained very conservative) Economics: behind the rest of Europe-one of last to enter Industrial

Revolution Based on Agriculture-one of last to eliminate serfdom Culture/Social Structure: Christian but Russian Orthodox Church (old tie to Byzantine Empire-eastern European rather than western) Large population-not part of Enlightenment, small middle class, controlled by boyars (Russian nobles) Environment: vast empire-goes to China, cold (looking always for warm water port) Catherine the Great (1762-1796) Enlightened Despot- Period 5 talked about making government reforms of Enlightenment but never did (reforms like Social Contract, abolish serfdom, laissez faire economics) 3 Enlightened Despots-Catherine, Joseph II of Austria, Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia

Crushed liberal reforms-Pugachev Rebellion- a cossack (former serf who was granted freedom for moving to frontier) who wanted to end taxes and military draft and supported rights of serfs Supported the nobility (boyars) and allowed nobility to keep control of serfs Expanded Russia Partitioned (split up Poland) with Austria and Prussia Moving south to Black Sea Alexander I(1801-1825) Part of European Alliance that defeated Napoleon Attended the Congress of Vienna Period 5 which created a balance of power so that France would never be so powerful again (created German confederation, dissolved HRE, unified Netherlands) Suggested Holy Alliance- agreement that everyone rule by Christian principles-largely ignored

Nicholas I(1825-1855) Crushed Decembrist Revolt 1825 Army officers seeking western political reforms (like the Enlightenment social contract) Shows that czars still not interested in real political change (want to remain absolute monarchs) Alexander II(1855-1881) Crimean WarExpanding south to Black Sea in search of warm water port Fought Ottomans who were aided by British and French Russian defeat showed how behind Russia was in military technology Period 5 and Industrial Revolution (ironically, showed the same of the Ottomans!) Led to Industrialization (remember England began industrializing in the early 1700s) Abolished serfdom to move from agricultural to industrialized economy Serfs did not receive political rights-rather they owed boyars for land they worked

little practical change for them Government sponsored Trans-Siberian Railroad- stimulated iron and coal industries also made it easier to export grain to west Most industry still owned by foreigners in Russia Created ZemstovsEffort to take some power from boyars plus needed some government since serfs no longer controlled by boyars Put road building, education and local policies in hands of small middle class professionals Politically unstable- rising anarchists and intelligentsia who both wanted reforms and power Nicholas II (1894-1917) Lost to Japan in Russo-Japanese War 1904 Could not move troops or its fleet to Pacific to fight Japan Period 6

quickly Humiliating defeat Shows increasing power/industrialization of Japans Meiji Government Shows that Russian believe in Social Darwinism too-humiliating that they would lose to Japanese (East Asians) Stops Russia expansion East Inside Russia Loss to Japan sparked Revolution of 1905: Duma- Liberals created legislative body in Russia Peasants gained more freedom-buy & sell land, local control (Stolypin Reforms) Nicholas, though a weak czar, wanted to remain absolute so reforms not lasting Anarchists rising in prominenceincluding Lenin (& Bolsheviks)

World War I- in Triple Entente with Great Britain & France Losing WWI-lack of weaponsfailure to industrialize Russian Revolution 1917 Periods 6 Nicholass problems Trying to remain absolute unlike the rest of Europe Had to grant Constitution & Duma after loss to Japan 1904 Communism is new economic theory that came out of oppression to poor caused by IndustrializationLenin is gaining power Losing WWI Stage 1--Led by Alexander Kerensky Began in Petrograd (St Petersburg) with urban workers Created moderate government Stayed in WWI Did not redistribute land to peasants

Stage 2led by Lenin & Bolsheviks USSR- Under Lenin (1917-1924) Government Periods 6 Lenin is Dictator (a lot like Nicholas) Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- got out of Nicholas WWI- signed over 1/3 of Russian lands to Germany (Versailles later made those places independent like Poland, Baltic states) Red Army-led by Trotsky- defeated White Army in civil war Assassinated Nicholas II and his family Economic Supposed to be Marxist- a socialist who believed there would be a violent revolution of the proletariat (workers) against the bourgeoisie (owners) in which a classless society would be created Nationalized peasants land and major industries BUT created New Economic Policy (NEP)-capitalistic plan in which small business owners would have freedom from state Food production stabilized

USSR- Under Stalin(1924-1953) Periods 6 Emphasized industrialization and strong Agriculture Nationalized agriculture Forcibly took land from Kulaks Kulaks resisted by slaughtering animals and burning fields Stalin sent millions of Kulaks to death or gulag (labor camp) 5 Year Plans Set development goals for each industry Women-classless society-women worked same jobs/same hours as men-treated equally badly Great Depression-had few affects in USSR since so isolated (not tied to global economy like most of rest of world) World War II Hated Germany and Hitler but signed Non-Aggression Pact with Hitler each knowing the other would eventually invade Allied with US, Great Britain, France

USSR- Under Stalin-ending WWII Stalin met with Churchill (GB) and Roosevelt (US) at 3 meetings to discuss end of WWII Periods 6 Tehran D-Day discussed to open up a new front in WWII USSR could occupy Eastern Europe as it advanced against Germany Yalta- could not agree on how to treat Germany Would divide Germany into sections US. GB, France and USSR each controlling a quadrant Stalin agreed to western governments in Greece, Hungary, Yugoslavia Beginning to see tension between allies over post war influence which would lead to Cold War Potsdam- Roosevelt died leaving Truman to go to meeting for US War in Europe already over-still fighting in Pacific Stalin went back on agreements at Yalta-installed Communist governments in Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, and Yugoslavia (splitting of Europe between east and west setting stage for Cold War) Truman told Churchill about atomic bomb to finish Pacific war but did not

tell Stalin (shows distrust among allied leaders)-Stalin knew about bomb from a spy he had in US Divided Germany and Korea into Soviet and western states USSR- Post WWII-Cold War Part of United Nations permanent members of Periods 6 Security Council Nuclear Arms Race with US Cuban Missile Crisis- 1962-USSR put nuclear warheads in Castro controlled Cuba and came to brink of war when sent warships to Cuba Khrushchev was Soviet premier Kennedy was US president who negotiated settlement Nations begin signing limitations on nuclear arms Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty signed 1968 Space race is offshoot of Arms race USSR first to send satellite into orbit-Sputnik 1957

leads to Space race with US with US reaching moon first in 1969 USSR- -Cold War Superpowers emerge US vs USSR-first time Russians held center state in Europe-historically isolated! US issued Truman Doctrine- to support free people resisting Periods 6 subjugation around the world US replaced GB as protector this should remind you of Monroe Doctrine/Roosevelt Corollary/hope of Wilson at Versailles Supported independence movements in Greece, Iran, Turkey against USSR US also loaned $$ to struggling European nations (Marshall Plan) remember Dawes Plan after WWI Berlin Blockade (1947) Berlin (inside East Germany)international city divided into quadrants like Germany Stalin blockaded the city so that no supplies could get into western part US responded with Berlin Airlift-bringing in supplies by airplane

Berlin Wall-rising tension in Germany when USSR built wall between east and west Berlin 1961 Tension spread when western powers formed NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) as defensive block against communists Leading to arms race between east and west USSR- -Post Cold War Gorbachev soviet premier tries to make small transition of openness with west (1982-1991) leads to Periods 6 1) Glasnost- openness more open discussion of political/social/economic issues 2) Democratization- throw in a little democracy while keeping Communist power Created Congress of Peoples Deputies-President elected by people

3) Perestroika-economic reforms-trying to modernize from within beginning of market economy with some decisions made not by government but by individualssome private ownership of business 1991 KGB, Politiburo lead coup against Gorbachevcoup failed when protesters led by Boris Yeltsin wanted more extreme reforms Revolution of 1991- 11 republics of Russia declared independence- USSR dissolved and Gorbachev lost power Yeltsin became president of Russian Republic Russia no longer superpower East and West Germany unite into one country Democratic reforms come to old Iron Curtain (eastern) states

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