Russian and Chinese Empire-Building [1450-1750]

Russian and Chinese Empire-Building [1450-1750]

Russian and Chinese Empire-Building [1450-1750] AP World History Notes Chapter 14 Making the Russian Empire Russian state centered on the city of Moscow Conquered a number of neighboring

Russian-speaking cities Continued to expand south and east of Moscow Brought together a wide variety of different peoples and cultures Making the Russian Empire Motivations for Russian Expansion Motivation #1 = security from the nomadic pastoral peoples Lived in the grasslands south and east of the Russian

heartland Russians = afraid one of these groups will rise to power like the Mongols These nomads frequently raided Russias neighbors and sold many of them into slavery Motivations for Russian Expansion Motivation #2 = Pelts of fur-bearing animals To the east across

the vast expanse of Siberia Very valuable and indemand item Nickname = soft gold Russian Point of View To Russians, their empire meant: Defending the Russian frontiers Enhancing the power of the Russian state Bringing Christianity, civilization, and

enlightenment to savages Life in the Russian Empire Ivan the Terrible Tsar of Russia (15331584) Everyone had to swear an oath of allegiance to the grand tsar Everyone had to pay yasak = tribute paid in cash or valuable

goods New diseases accompanied Russian conquest ex: smallpox and measles People felt the pressure to convert to Christianity Tax breaks, tribute exemptions, and the promise of land if they did Life in the Russian Empire Huge influx of Russian settlers to conquered territories within the empire Began to outnumber the native peoples Ex: By 1720 = population of Siberia = 70%

Russian and 30% native Siberian Life in the Russian Empire Native peoples were Russified = adopted the Russian language and culture, converted to Christianity, gave up their traditional hunting & gathering lifestyle, Impact on the Environment

Loss of hunting ground and pasturelands to Russian agricultural settlers Result = native peoples became dependent on Russian markets for crops and luxury The Russian Empire

By the 18th century = Russia became one of the great powers of Europe Power stemmed from wealth found in: rich agricultural lands, valuable furs, and mineral deposits Russia became a highly militarized state as well Russian Empire stayed intact until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 The Russian Empire

Established a tradition of autocratic government with a powerful monarchy Belief = only a strong ruler could hold together such a large empire with such a diverse population Ruled by monarchies until the early 1900s Peter the Great Reign: 1682 - 1725 Russian Empire vs. those of other Western European Countries

RUSSIAN EMPIRE Acquired territories next to them that they had been in contact with for a long time Acquired territories at the same time that a Russian state was taking shape Russia was an empire. OTHER EUROPEANS

Acquired territories far away from them that they didnt know about until 1492 Acquired overseas empires AFTER establishing themselves as solid European states The British had an empire. Making China an Empire

Done by the Qing (aka Manchu) Dynasty Ruled from 1644 to 1912 Foreigners invaders from Manchuria Enlarged the size of China and incorporated a lot of non-Chinese peoples as they expanded to the north and west Qing Rulers: Cultural Elements

MAINTAINED Ethnic distinctiveness forbade intermarriage between themselves and native Chinese ADOPTED Chinese language Confucian teachings Chinese government techniques

Making China an Empire: Motivations Major motivation = security concerns To China = expansion was viewed as a defensive necessity Result = Qing dynasty China undertook an 80year military effort (16801760) to bring together surrounding regions under Chinese control

Life in the Chinese Empire In general the Qing rulers: Showed respect for other cultures Did not force people to assimilate to Chinese culture Yizhu = 8th Emperor of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty Chinese settlers did not flood the other

regions of the empire

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