Russian Revolution WWI - Montgomery County Schools

Russian Revolution WWI - Montgomery County Schools

Russian Revolution WWI World Civilizations Bellringer What does the I stand for in M.A.I.N.? Imperial Russia, 1815-1915

Russian Government Before Revolution Monarchy: The Czar (Tsar) Until 1905 the Tsar's powers were unlimited. Russia had no constitution, no political party system to check the Tsar's power A strong secret police which

terrorized the people. Czar Alexander II He implemented important reforms, notably the abolition of serfdom, In 1867, he sold Alaska and the Aleutian Islands to the United States. Killed by the Revolutionary Group: The Peoples Will

Czar Alexander III Alexander III's reign was during an industrial revolution in Russia . His reign was harsh, against revolutionaries and other liberal movements. Pre-Revolutionary Russia Only

true autocracy left in Europe Nicholas II became Tsar in 1884 Believed he was the absolute ruler anointed by God Russo-Japanese War [1904-1905] Russo-Japanese War (1904)

Dispute over Manchuria with Japan Shook national confidence in their progress and rule of Czar. The Revolution of 1905

Russias losing fight had people revolting due to unrest. The creation of a discontented working class Vast majority of

workers concentrated in St. Petersburg and Moscow Help from the countryside: poor peasants No individual land ownership EVENTS OF 1905 Bloody Sunday

200,000 workers march on czars winter palace Troops fire on crowd, 1,000 + killed Creation of Duma First parliament of Russia Czar forced to share power; dissolved it after 10 weeks Bloody Sunday (January 22, 1905)

Marchers Officer The Czars Winter Palace in St. Petersburg Bloody Sunday (1905) The Duma

Created in 1905 like U.S. House of Reps. Oversee the power of the czar

Before the War Tsar Nicholas II ineffective leader Nation isnt very modern Most people are poor

farmers. Russia and World War I The Years Before the War Russia a troubled nation Czar Nicholas II had promised reform after 1905 revolution, but delivered little real change Bolshevik Plan Adaptation of Marxist ideas of

overthrow of capitalism Wanted elite group to keep much of power over Russia Bolsheviks sought to change life through revolution, wanted to overthrow czar As Russias problems grew more serious, Bolsheviks gained more followers

Led by Lenin, wanted proletariat to rule Russia as socialist country Czar Nicholas hoped World War I would cause people to rally to his leadership Russia in World War I At

the start of the war, Russia had an enormous army of some 6 million soldiers. Preparations for War On the Battlefield Outbreak of fighting caused patriotism, rush to join military Otherwise Russia ill-prepared for war

Factories unable to produce supplies quickly Transportation system weak Equipment outdated Many Russian officers advanced on connections, not ability Some initial successes on battlefield Losses soon outnumbered

victories Millions of Russian soldiers wounded, killed during early battles World War I: The Last Straw

Russian Army was being beaten badly. Lack of food for the soldiers and for the entire nation. Many soldiers are beginning to desert. Average peasant has very little invested in the War

Conditions Grow Worse Czar Nicholas II took personal command of forces, 1915 Move made little sense since he knew little of military matters Czars fate became linked with fate of Russian armed forces Bad situation grew worse under Czars command Russian army seemed doomed Central Powers were able to stop Russian offensive

Destroyed Russian soldiers faith in leadership Army had little strength, even less confidence Conditions in Russia worse than on battlefield Food, goods scarce; peasants grew desperate Unpopular Czarina relied on Grigory Rasputin, viewed as corrupt, immoral Shaky support for Russian monarchy dipped even lower

The Power Behind the Throne Scandals surrounding Rasputin served to discredit the monarchy Alexandra was more blindly committed to autocracy than her

husband Alexis and Nicholas II Rasputin Rasputin with Admirers RASPUTIN The Collapse of the Imperial

Government Nicholas leaves for the Front September, 1915 Alexandra and Rasputin throw the government into chaos Alexandra and other

high government officials accused of treason The Collapse of the Imperial Government Rasputin assassinated in December of 1916 Refusal to receive

assistance of the Russian middle class Complete mismanagement of the wartime economy NICHOLAS IIs MISTAKES Brought

Russia into WWI Moved Headquarters to front in WWI Czarina Alexandra given power; she became influenced by Rasputin Rasputin was freaky, crazy, and corrupt People poor and starving; lots of unrest The Two Revolutions of 1917 The

March Revolution (February) The November Revolution (October) ? (April 1917)

Trotsky (After 1924) March Revolution

Feb. 1917 Riots break out in Petrograd / Soldiers refuse to fire on the rioters. Royal palace is taken over. March 1917 Tsar Nicholas II forced to give up power. Czar abdicates Provisional government

(Duma) takes control lead by Alexander Keresnky Provisional government unpopular after decision to stay in WWI PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Temporary Government Led by: Alexander Kerensky

But the Provisional Government did not have as much power as the SOVIETS Formed by social revolutionaries Local councils in cities Consisted of workers, peasants, and soldiers

MISTAKES OF PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Biggest mistake: kept Russia in World War One Also, did not help workers or peasants with food and fuel shortages Lost all support! Here Come the

Bolsheviks!! OCTOBER REVOLUTION Led by: Vladimir Lenin, leader of Bolshevik Party (Communists!) His slogan: Peace, Land, and Bread Bolshevik Red Guards took over govt offices; arrested Prov. Govt leaders Bolsheviks in power November 1917

What happened to Tsar Nicholas? July 1918 Bolsheviks murder him and his entire family (wife and 5 children). LENIN'S FIRST MOVES... All

farmland distributed to peasants Factories controlled by workers End Russias involvement in WWI Treaty of Brest-Litovsk pulls Russia out of the war gives up territory Gained many opponents,

leading to Russian Civil War RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR 1918-1920 RED ARMY Bolsheviks (Communists!) Led byLeon Trotsky WHITE ARMY

Opponents of Bolsheviks in Russia; western nations like the USA 15 million dead! WINNERS! LOSERS!

RESULTS OF THE CIVIL WAR Red Army crushes all opposition to Bolshevik rule Russian economy destroyed: no trade or industrial production BOLSHEVIKS BECOME KNOWN

AS THE COMMUNIST PARTY (still led by Lenin) THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY 1921 To help Russia recover from the war Lenin allowed for a little bit of capitalism Peasants could sell surplus (extra)

crops for profit Individuals could buy and sell goods for profit Some small factories, farms, and businesses allowed NEW COUNTRY Lenin organized Russia into selfgoverning republics

Central Government controlled them! 1922: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Capital: Moscow Lenin had created a Dictatorship of the Communist Party This becomes known as Leninism White Troops and Their Red Opponents

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