Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning

Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning

EAL/D Strategies Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning - Based on the text from Pauline Gibbons, 2 nd ed. 2015 I can say what I want, but not for school work and strangers. - English language learner quoted in The Bilingual Interface Project Report (McKay et al.1997) Moving towards academic language

The ability to use language in more explicit ways is one of the major differences between informal and face-toface conversation and written language As children move through school, they are expected to progress from talking only about their here and now personal experiences towards using their particular registers of different curriculum areas, and be able to express increasingly more abstract ideas Moving towards academic language

Text 1. Look its making the move. Those dont stick. Text 2. We found out the pins stuck on the magnet. Text 3. Our experiment showed that magnets attract some metals. Text 4. Magnetic attraction occurs only between ferrous metals. Moving towards academic language

It is problematic to talk about overall proficiency in a language without taking into account the context in which the language will be used Language learning is not a simple linear process, but a functional diversification, an extension of a learners communicative range Students need to develop academic registers through programs that integrate subject teaching with its associated language Learning about language is most meaningful when it occurs in the context of actual language use The difference between native speakers and EALD learners

While the language and literacy demands of the curriculum are unfamiliar to all children when they start school, English speakers are doing so through the medium of their mother tongue. They have already acquired the core grammar and are learning to use it in a range of familiar social situations. EALD learners are not. Therefore they need ongoing language development across the whole curriculum and recognition by all teachers that they are teachers of English, not subject content. Only in this way will EALD students have access to, models of, and practice in using the range of academic language they

need for learning. Merely placing children in the mainstream does not ensure that learners will develop the academic language for learning How this impacts on teaching and learning Teaching and learning programs need to draw on 3 major points: Zone of Proximal Development (Vgotsky): the gap between what a child can do unaided and what the child can do in coordination

with a skilled expert. To close this gap, we must scaffold. Scaffolding is the steps taken to reduce the degrees of freedom in carrying out some tasks so that the child can concentrate on the difficult skills she is in the process of acquiring. It is temporary. What the child can do with support today, she can do alone tomorrow. Scaffolding challenges teachers to maintain high expectations for students as well as provide appropriate scaffolding. A high-challenge, high support classroom HIGH CHALLENGE HIGH SUPPORT

LOW SUPPORT LOW CHALLENGE Q. Looking at the four quadrants, where do you think most of your own teaching is concentrated? EALD Specialists are Highly Accomplished Teachers

A closer look at the Teaching Standards reveals that experienced EALD specialists are Highly Accomplished Teachers http:// www.tesol.org.au/files/files/395_Updated_Elaboration_Jul y20_complete.pdf What does this EALD project mean for you? Session 1: Building a Successful EALD Classroom A: Effective teacher talk

Classroom Talk A classroom without a well-planned spoken language program denies all students a major resource for learning and denies EALD learners the kinds of contexts that foster language development With all the time put into literacy programs and curriculum development, spoken language is the poor relation to the teaching of the written mode What helps learners learn a new language? (use as a checklist)

Learners need to understand what is said to them and what they read (building on what they know already) Learners need to use the new language themselves (pair and group activities)

Learners need opportunities to use stretched language (providing moments of struggle) Learners need models of new language, especially the academic registers of school Learners need opportunities to build the resources of their mother tongue Second language learning is facilitated when students are using the new language to learn other things, such as subject content Classroom talk and EALD learners The IRE pattern: (Initiation) Teacher: What season comes after Summer? (Response) Student: Autumn (Evaluation) Teacher: Right, good. What opportunities has this teacher provided for the

student to use stretched language? Classroom talk: The dialogic approach Curriculum is co-constructed through dialogue, in which students are able to make connections to previous learning and encouraged to voice their opinions and ideas in the knowledge that it will be taken seriously Strategies When students report back to the class, guide them through this process by asking questions throughout that help that students stretch their language. Is that what you were thinking? Tell us what you learned Slow down the dialogue- increase wait time

Classroom talk: Message abundancy EALD students complain that the teacher talks too quickly. One thing we can do to help is to increase message abundancy Think of how you use Google Maps! Strategies Refer to visuals, such as diagrams, mind maps or graphic outlines Intersperse what you say with other sources of input, such as video or a diagram Give students an outline of key points and a highlighter as you introduce them Draw attention to other written texts where the same information is presented

Q. Something to consider: Audiorecord yourself in class talking with a group of EALD learners. Who spoke most? Why? Q. Consider the instructions you give in class. How many different ways can you provide these instructions? B: Effective group work Language mode: Oral interaction (speaking) Why use group work?

Learners have more chances to interact with other speakers, therefore the amount of language increases They tend to take more turns and clarify their meanings Comprehension is increased because they can ask questions and solve problems They can seek new information They can feel more comfortable working with peers than performing in front of the whole class

Through the process of joint construction, the wording can be gradually refined toward more explicit and written-like language (as they clarify meanings) Making group work effective

Provide clear and explicit instructions (use message abundancy!) Make talk necessary for the task (eg. find the difference, information gap, jigsaw groups) Provide clear outcomes Make the task cognitively appropriate (high challenge/ high support) Integrate the task with a broader curriculum topic (not as an add-on to the curriculum) All children in the group are involved (eg jigsaw, assigning roles) Give them enough time to complete tasks Ensure students know how to work in groups. Reinforce expectations Group and pair activity suggestions

Paired problem solving Donut circles Hot Seat Talking points Progressive brainstorm Opinion clines Problem solving Picture sequencing (eg. a description of a sequence of events/ set of instructions)

Paired problem solving Useful for art, design and tech, or science, where students have to design something Different pairs come together and question each other about what they did, how they did it and what problems they faced Benefits: New language will be heard in context, when the thing is being designed the EALD learners can participate on

equal footing, it is pitched at an appropriate cognitive level (challenging task), there is a real need to talk, it can be embedded in a curriculum topic Language used: Reporting, questioning, making suggestions Donut circles Useful for students with low levels of English Children are in two concentric circles with equal numbers of students in each circle. The outer circle (circle A) faces inward, and the inner circle (circle B) faces outward so that each student is facing someone from the other circle. The pairs talk in turns for

a minute or two about a topic. After both students have had a turn, one of the circles moves clockwise to face a new person, while the other circle stands still, so that everyone is opposite a new partner and the information is repeated. Benefits: practice and rehearsal of an idea or sentence structure, allows for peer scaffolding (after hearing it from a native speaker) Hot Seat Seat children in a circle, with one chair being designated the hot seat. The student in the hot seat activity portrays a character from a text that has been shared with the class. Other students can ask her questions to find our more about the characters life

Talking points It consists of a list of statements that may be factually accurate, wrong or contentious, all related to a particular topic. Students justify to the class why these statements are correct or not. Benefits: better understanding of the issue, stretching language Progressive brainstorm

Divide students into small groups. Each group has a large sheet of paper with a topic. Children spend 10 mins brainstorming what they know, then they move to the next group and complete the next groups mind map. At the end they discuss what is on their original sheet, noting additions or critiquing anything they disagree with Benefits: generates a lot of talk as students come to read what has been written on other papers and their own

Opinion clines Students arrange themselves in a line representing a continuum from strongly agreeing to strongly disagreeing with a controversial statement. This activity requires students not only to give their opinions, but also to make explicit the reasons they have for holding these opinions Benefits: can be a precursor or follow-up to a small group or whole-class discussion, useful for scaffolding a written argument or discussion Problem solving

Provide questions or problems whereby students are encouraged to think laterally, in unusual and creative ways Benefits: students that are less bound by the constraints of formal logical thinking, they can provide fun contexts for spoken language, they can serve as useful warm-up activities, EALD students can participate easily (especially if they are presented visually) Picture sequencing

Use a set of picture cards that tell a simple and predictable story or illustrate a predictable sequence or set of instructions. Give each student in the group one card. Each student describes their card and then they decide as a group which order the cards should go in Benefits: can provide scaffolding for several forms of writing- such as narrative based on pictures, a description of a sequence of events, or a set of instructions Q. What points in this section affirm your own practice? What is the most important learning for you?

Q. Describe a small-group activity you have used successfully and suggest why it was successful. Refer to the principles for effective group work. C: Moving from speaking to writing The Mode Continuum -Remember this?

Text 1. Look its making the move. Those dont stick. Text 2. We found out the pins stuck on the magnet. Text 3. Our experiment showed that magnets attract some metals. Text 4. Magnetic attraction occurs only between ferrous metals. The Mode Continuum This shows us that while spoken and written language

obviously have distinct characteristics, there is no absolute boundary between them Texts that are most spoken-like are dependent for their situation. More written-like texts must be complete enough so that they create their own context An EALD learner is likely to have fewer difficulties producing the first sentence because the situation provides a support for meaning, whereas the final sentence requires knowledge of grammar and vocabulary How to use the Mode Continuum You can use the Mode Continuum to help the students

move from speaking to writing, but only when the written texts dont require knowledge of language or structural features (then use the Teaching and Learning cycle) The Mode Continuum helps students use academic language to understand what they just learnt Using the Mode Continuum for Lesson Planning Why not use the Mode Continuum in lesson planning? Here is an example for Science: 1. Do an experiment (small groups). Here they explore, develop understandings, hypothesise- they learn about Science 2. Introduce key vocabulary (whole class). Eg. introduce the words attract and repel 3. Teacher-guided reporting (whole class). Groups of students, with the

help of the teacher, shared their learning with the whole class. Students had to use language more explicitly because they didnt have the materials in fron tof them 4. Journal writing (individual). Students write a response to what have you learned? The teacher-guided reporting should influence the way the students write. Q. In what ways does the Mode Continuum affirm your own teaching practice? D: Learning to Write in a Second Language and Culture Language mode: Writing

Challenges for EALD learners Less likely to be familiar with organisational structures of writing and the cultural normal and grammatical structures of English Some students are very strong speakers and often get ignored when it comes to writing What is a genre?

Different forms of literary writing, such as poems, plays or novels, are often referred to as genres. Each of them: Occurs within a culture Has a specific social purpose Has a particular overall organisational structure Is characterised by specific linguistics features The genres of school

Creative and personal genres (recount, narrative) Factual genres: to reproduce knowledge (information report, procedure) Analytical genres: to reflect and analyse knowledge (argument, discussion) Factual genres Type of text Information report Procedure Insects

How to make a healthy meal Purpose To give information about something To tell how to do something Organisation

Examples of connectives (to structure ideas) May not be used Subheadings structure information If report describes life cycles, time connectives such as first, two weeks later, then, finally General statement Characteristics (eg. habitat) Characteristics (eg. appearance) Characteristics (eg. food)

May have subheadings Goal Steps in a sequence To introduce each step eg. first, second, third Other? Analytical genres Type of text

Argument Discussion Should smoking be illegal? Should smoking be illegal? Purpose To persuade others, to take a position and justify it, showing one side of an argument To persuade others, to take a position and justify it, showing two or more sides of an

argument Organisation Examples of connectives (to structure ideas)

Personal statement of position Argument 1 and supporting points/evidence, 2, 3 Conclusion and possible recommendation To introduce each argument (first, second, in addition, finally) To introduce the conclusion (in conclusion, therefore)

Other language Subject-related vocabulary Evaluative vocabulary that

Identification of the issue Argument 1 and supporting points/ evidence, 2, 3 Counterarguments Conclusion and possible recommendation To introduce each argument (eg. first, second, in addition) To introduce each counterargument (however, on the other hand) To introduce conclusion (in conclusion, therefore) Subject-related vocabulary Evaluative vocabulary that indicates

Other? Explicit teaching about writing It does not mean teaching of traditional grammar and to do meaningless drills and exercises devoid of functional purpose It means that students are encouraged to reflect on how

language is used for a range of purposes and with a range of audiences, and that teachers focus explicitly on those aspects of language that enable students to do this Explicit teaching is related to real-life use, so that understanding about language is developed in the context of actual language use It reflects Vygotskian notions of learning Back to the Teaching & Learning cycle (Curriculum Cycle)

Building the Field (the focus here is the content, or information, of the text) Modeling the genre (build student understanding of purpose, overall structure and language features of particular genre of the class) Joint construction (moving from spoken-like to writtenlike language) Independent writing Q. What are the genres your students are expected to produce? (formal or informal tasks) Q. Think about the structural/ language features of that genre. Have you

provided activities for students to use this language through the T & L cycle? E: Reading in a Second Language and Culture Language mode: Reading The process of reading Thr hs bn a It of dbat ovr th pst tn yrs abt th tchng of rding. Sme see rding as th mastry of phncs, othrs as a prcss of prdctn whrby the rder uss bckgrnd knwldge and knwledge of th lngge systm to prdict mning. Thees diffreing veiws haev infelunced the wya raeding has bene tuahgt. Approaochse haev vareid betwene thoes who argeu raeding prorgam, and those who argeu fro a whoellanguage appraohc in whchi childnre laern to raed by perdicting maenngi.

But it shou_be obvi_ to anyo_ readi_ thi_ th_ goo_ read_ use a rang_ or strategy_ to gai_ mean_ fro_ writ_ text_. The process of reading This shows that phonemic awareness and phonic knowledge would not have enabled you to interpret the texts with meaning, nor was it sufficient enough for you to predict words as you were reading You drew on background knowledge of the subject, to predict what the text was saying

You drew on your intuitive knowledge of how English words: recognising syntax and key vocabulary The process of reading There are 3 kinds of knowledge on which readers draw to gain meaning from text. These are: 1. Semantic knowledge (knowledge of the world) 2. Syntactic knowledge (knowledge of the structure of language) 3. Graphophonic knowledge (knowledge of the relationships between sounds and letters and this pattern in English) The process of reading

You read familiar material much faster than unfamiliar material, because you are unable to bring personal knowledge and understanding of topic to a text, you are effectively robbed of that ability to make use of what you already know, or in-the-head knowledge. For EALD learners they may not share the same cultural knowledge of the text, or have knowledge of the language system. Therefore they have less in the head knowledge. Implications for EALD learners

EALD students have to develop these reading skills in the context of familiar or comprehensible content What the teacher does before a book is read is therefore important The challenge is building the field of reading texts. Teachers should not avoid books that contain unfamiliar content or cultural understandings- it does not support students in learning a new language. Planning for reading: Before, reading, and after reading activities Classroom reading activities should generally aim to fulfil two major

functions: They should help readers understand the particular text they are reading They should help readers develop good reading strategies for reading other texts o For example, preteaching all the vocabulary before a child reads a text does not help them when they meet an unknown word later on. If you give them strategies to figure out what to do when they meet unknown words, these strategies can be transferred to other contexts. o This supports the notion of scaffolding: providing support for a task, but then developing their autonomy so they can complete similar tasks alone o Plan activities before reading, during reading and after reading a text Before-reading activities

These aim to: Develop knowledge in relation to the overall meaning of the text (not every unknown word) Prepare students for potential language, cultural and conceptual difficulties Remind students of what they already know (activate prior knowledge)

Support students to make predictions about a text Before-reading activities Predicting from a visual Predicting the main ideas Predicting from the title, first sentence, or key words Sequencing illustrations or diagrams Reader questions Storytelling in the mother tongue

During- reading activities These activities aim to: Model good reading strategies and make explicit what mature readers do unconsciously Engage readers actively with the text Help learners understand how to read more effectively themselves During-reading activities

Modeled reading Pause and predict (with narrative texts or scientific experiments) Shadow reading Noticing visual layout and text features

Skimming and scanning the text Rereading for detail (to make sure they have understood the information) Thinking tracks Shared books Word masking Summarising the text Jigsaw reading After-reading activities

The purpose of these activities are to: Use the now-familiar text for specific language study, such as to focus on particular items of vocabulary Allow students an opportunity to respond creatively to what they have read, such as through art or drama Focus students more deeply on the information in the text, such as using information transfer activities that represent the information in a different form (a timeline or diagram) After-reading activities

Story Innovation Readers Theatre Story Map Time Lines Hot Seat Freeze Frames Cloze

Monster Cloze Vanishing Cloze Text Reconstruction True/ False Questions Key-ring Words Questioning the text Q. Look at the texts students will read in your program. What specific cultural, conceptual, or language difficulties might they face? Q. What before, during, and after-reading activities could you use?

F: Listening: An Active and Thinking Process Language mode: Oral interaction (Listening) Making sense of what we hear * Introductory teacher listening activity on pg 184 Making sense of what we hear Listening is more than knowledge of acoustic information, you need expectations and predictions of

content, language and genre that the listener brings to the text. Listening is like reading, it is an active process that relies on that in the head knowledge Listening tasks are far more demanding if students dont have that knowledge Types of listening TWO-WAY Interpersonal topics Informationbased topics ONE-WAY

Q. Which classroom activities do you use regularly? Where are they found on the matrix? Is there a range of types of listening activities? Types of listening The easiest listening context for EALD learners involves the situations found in Quadrant A One-way listening is generally more difficult than twoway because listeners dont have an opportunity to ask

for clarification or to slow down the text they are listening to Those examples found in Quadrant D are the most demanding because they are less likely to involve familiar topics, yet this is the kind of listening common to classroom contexts Implications for teaching Approaches to teaching of listening should be focussed on meaning

There are listening activities that can be embedded within your regular program All activities require the learner to take action Two-way listening activities Map games (good for Maths and Geography) Give students identical maps, but with some road and building names removed. Map A should have the information that is not on Map B and vice versa. They must find the missing information with questions. This can be varies depending on what info you want them to gain Split dictation You will need to gapped versions of a text, with each text having different gaps. In pairs, students must complete the text by reading to each other the parts they have and filling in the blanks for the parts they dont have.

PARTNER A 1. Insects have caused much suffering ____________________________________ 2. __________________________________ have died of malaria. 3. This is a disease __________________________________. 4. Insects ____________________________________. 5. __________________________________ infects people with sleeping sickness. PARTNER B 1. _________________________________ for human beings. 2. Millions of people ____________________________ 3. _________________________________ that is spread by mosquitoes 4. ________________________________ spread many other diseases 5. The tsetse fly _________________________________

Two-way listening activities Dictogloss The teacher reads a short passage twice at normal speed. The students just listen. The teacher reads a 3rd time and write down as much as they can as fast as they can. They shouldnt try to write sentences, just keywords and phrases. In pairs they discuss the notes they have written and reconstruct the original text. The pairs then make a group of 4 and continue. One-way listening activities If You Are Students have to write down instructions depending on their characteristics. Ie. write your name on the paper. If you are a boy, write it on the left. If you are a girl, write it

on the right. If you came to school by bus, write the word bus inside a triangle etc Hands Up Give the students a set of questions based on a text they are going to listen to, as they hear a piece of information they need, they raise their hands One-way listening activities Listening for information Provide the context for what the student will listen to. Prepare a blank information sheet for the students and they must transfer the information there as they listen.

Name of the country Where it is Population What language (s) people speak Largest city One-way listening activities Spot the Difference Prepare two versions of a story (A or B), two news bulletins, or two procedural texts than have minor changes of detail. Read Version A to the stuednts and ask them to listen for overall meaning. Read it a

second time so that students become familiar with it. Then give students this text. Then teacher reads text B. Students must spot the difference between the written and the alternative version. Picture dictation You will need a short text that involves a sequence of events in time, such as a story, recount, description of a procedure. Students individually, or in pairs, have a number of jumbled pictures that match the text. Read the text to the children. As you read the text, children put the pictures in order One-way listening activities Matching Game (Listening) Students have several pictures, each labelled with a number. The teacher describes one of the pictures, giving each description a letter. Students than match the pictures with the description by

saying which numbers and letters go together. This is more challenging if the pictures are similar in most details. Aural/ Oral Cloze Prepare a cloze activity with random or focussed deletions. Write the title on the board and get children to predict what information the text is likely to contain. Read the complete text to the students while they listen, then read again as students fill in the blanks. Q. Look at your program. Where could you focus more specifically on developing listening skills? Q. Which reading activities could also be

adapted as listening activities? Session 2: Planning your program Final tips Pulling everything together Pulling everything together Backward Mapping The Program Big ideas/ what do they need to know

Language outcomes The Assessment Task Teaching & Learning cycle Identify language demands from program activities Select language based activities (speaking, listening, reading, writing) Ensure instructions on effective teacher talk is explicitly outlined in the lessons

Recap: Backward mapping the program Identify the big ideas/ the circles/ what do my students need to know? Identify the language outcomes needed for that unit of work and list them on the front page Science activities and outcomes Language outcomes Students will:

Research some common insects in order to understand what all insects have in common, how they change, how they impact on living things Compare the differences between spiders and insects Study some of the spiders found in gardens Produce an information report on an insect or spider that they choose Students will: Make generalisations (all insects have insects are) Describe the appearance of some insects and spiders using vocab (head,

abdomen, thorax) Write an information report using an appropriate overall structure (eg. headings/ subheadings) Use time connectives for describing the sequence of a life cycle (first, after) Recap: Backward mapping the Assessment Task (T & L cycle)

Work back from the assessment task using the 4 stages (building the field, deconstruction, joint construction, independent writing). Keep in mind that building the field of the assessment task may have already occurred in your units program (after all this is the content part). Building the field could be the first 6 weeks of your program, followed by modelling for 2 lessons, joint construction for 1-2 lessons, and independent writing for 1-2 lessons. Perhaps label your programs sequence of activities using the T & L cycle as subheadings? Backward mapping: Identify the

language demands of program activities Look at your program through the lens of language Finding the language in the content Speaking Listening Reading Writing What spoken What listening language tasks will there activities will

be? occur? What kinds of Are there listening do they sufficient involve: One way opportunities or two way? for students to Interpersonal or use language informational? for learning, and Are listening tasks to use literate built into the

spoken program? language? What texts will What writing tasks students be reading? are there? What are the possible What is the key genre cultural, conceptual, you will focus on or and linguistic revisit? difficulties that learners What is the purpose might encounter?

of the genre, the How will you develop organisation, the learners in-the-head types of connectives knowledge prior to important to the reading the text? genre and the What before, during grammatical and after-reading structures they are activities will be likely to occur? includes?

Unpacking the Content for Language Major planned activities Unpacking the topic for language Children visit the site (local park). On Oral recount of the visit, using: return they will collaboratively The past tense recount the visit based on Time connectives (first, next, afterward, later) photographs taken. Invite key people to the school to speak about the issue from their perspective, and answer childrens questions or concerns.

Formulating questions. Asking questions correctly and appropriately for this context (to a guest, someone not known by the children) In groups, children share what has been learned and collaboratively make a list of key issues, for and against the development. Using interpersonal language: giving opinions, expressing agreement and disagreement politely, building on others ideas In groups, children will write letters to the local newspaper or articles for the school newspaper presenting

opinions and making some recommendations. Writing a persuasive argument, using: Appropriate overall structure (statement of position, arguments/ evidence, conclusion and recommendation) Appropriate connectives for presenting each argument Persuasive language showing writers perspective (eg. we feel strongly that) Select language-based activities Selecting language based activities Major planned language based activities Unpacking the topic for language

Students visit the site (local park). On return they will collaboratively recount the visit based on photographs taken. They do this using Donut Circles. Past tense and time connectives can be modelled through peer students Oral recount of the visit, using: The past tense Time connectives (first, next, afterward, later) Inform students that you will be inviting a guest speaker. Brainstorm the differences between informal/ formal language and when it is

used. Using the dialogic approach, ask students to provide examples of questions they could ask. Teacher guides students with statements used in formal situations. Students form pairs and write questions they want to ask the guest speaker Invite key people to the school to speak about the issue from their perspective, and answer students questions or concerns. Formulating questions. Asking questions correctly and appropriately for this context (to a guest, someone not known by the children) Use opinion clines to gather student opinions on the issue Progressive brainstorm: students share what has been learned and

collaboratively make a list of key issues, for and against the development. They move on to the next group and add any issues they may have missed. Using interpersonal language: giving opinions, expressing agreement and disagreement politely, building on others ideas Modelling: Model the text, text reconstruction, dictogloss of another text Joint Construction: Guide the writing with students Independent writing: In groups, students will write letters to the local newspaper or articles for the school newspaper presenting opinions and making some recommendations. Teacher provides a graphic organiser to assist them with this.

Writing a persuasive argument, using: Appropriate overall structure (statement of position, arguments/ evidence, conclusion and recommendation) Appropriate connectives for presenting each argument Persuasive language showing writers perspective (eg. we feel strongly that) List strategies targeting language Speaking

Listening Donut circles Asking questions to the guest speaker Opinion clines Donut circles Guest speaker Group work Reading Are they evenly spread?

Could you add more? Add this towards the front of the program Writing Letter Select language-based activities Writing lessons in the program Ensure that effective teacher talk has been explicitly outlined in the lessons, so that anyone can pick up the

program and deliver it Ensure that it uses the dialogic approach, not the IRE Could you use the Mode Continuum when there is speaking writing within the one lesson? When there is a non-formalised written text type? A Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Begin by backward mapping the programs big ideas/ things

the students need to know. Get rid of whats nice. List the language outcomes Backward map the assessment task using the T & L cycle Identify the language demands of the programs activities Add language-based activities Record language-based activities in the strategies table. Add this to the front of the program. Is there a good spread? Assess the lessons. Is effective teacher talk explicitly outlined? Can anyone pick up the program and deliver it exactly how you want? Session 3: Implementation of the programs Process

End of Term 1 Program writing Finalise programs. Can request additional time if needed T2, Wk 1 Professional Learning Evaluation of programs using QT Coding T2, Wk 2 Faculty Meeting Share program with staff,

explaining what you incorporated and why Process Term 2 S teacher delivers program with Deliver program (team-teaching) support of EALD project team member Term 2, mid-term Peer coaching Team member observes faculty

teacher and provides feedback T2, end of term Evaluate program Team member and staff member evaluate program and strategies To do

At the end of Term 2, we can repeat the process again by taking PL to write the programs for Term 3 and Term 4 Please ensure that you are recording everything you do (for the project movie). This includes team teaching, peer coaching, faculty meetings, collaborative meetings, etc. All videos must be submitted in August Collect assessment task results. Can we compare with assessment results received last year by Year 7? Can we compere with students in Year 8 who have received no support? Next year? Repeat cycle again for Year 8?

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