Scaffolding Reading Comprehension

Scaffolding Reading Comprehension

SCAFFOLDING READING COMPREHENSIO N OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS Before During After Comprehension is the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language. It consists of three elements:

The reader The text The activity or purpose for reading (Rand Reading Study Group, 2002) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING What should happen

before, during and after reading? OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING SCAFFOLDING READING IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES The Scaffolding Reading in the Elementary Grades modules provide the instructional routines and strategies teachers need to help students extract and construct meaning. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND

EARLY LEARNING BEFORE READING Module Contents Teach the pronunciation of difficult to read words Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words

Teach or activate any necessary background knowledge Preview the story or the article OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING DURING READING Module Contents

Utilize passage reading procedures that provide adequate reading practice Ask appropriate questions during passage reading Teach strategies that can be applied to passage reading

Use graphic organizers to enhance comprehension OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING AFTER READING Module Contents Provide intentional fluency building practice

Engage students in a discussion Have students answer written questions Provide engaging vocabulary practice Have students write summaries of what they have read OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

SNAPSHOTS OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES AND ROUTINES OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BEFORE READING OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BEFORE READING BIG IDEA

If students can read the words in a passage accurately and fluently, their reading comprehension will be enhanced. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING TEACH THE PRONUNCIATION OF DIFFICULT TO READ WORDS. Procedures for telling the word(s). This word is ____________________ .

What word _____________________? Spell and read the word. _________________ focus inspector OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING glimpse spectator A STRATEGY MODELED Decoding Instruction, 1st Grade

OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA If students understand the meaning of critical vocabulary in the passage, their comprehension will be enhanced. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING TEACH THE MEANING

OF CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Tier One: Basic words Tier Two: Words in general use, but not common Chair, bed, happy, house Concentrate, absurd, fortunate, relieved, dignity

Tier Three: Rare words limited to a specific domain Tundra, igneous rocks, weathering OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING KEY CONCEPTS IN TEACHING CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Select words that are unknown and critical to passage understanding.

Select words students are likely to encounter in the future Tier 2 words Academic vocabulary Student-friendly explanations OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND

EARLY LEARNING EXAMPLE: TEACHING CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Select three words for robust explicit instruction. Reading Level: 2nd Series: Harcourt Trophies Passage: Lemonade for Sale announced members neighborhood arrived

rebuild lemonade glum squawked clubhouse OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING STUDENT-FRIENDLY EXPLANATIONS

Dictionary Definition Relieved (1) to free wholly from pain, stress, pressure. (2) to lessen or alleviate, as pain or pressure Student Friendly Explanation When something that is difficult is over or never happened at all, you feel relieved. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND

EARLY LEARNING STUDENT FRIENDLY DEFINITIONS Dictionary Definition Disgusting to cause to feel disgust; be sickening, repulsive, or very distasteful to Fragile easily broken, damaged, or destroyed Gratitude a feeling of thankful appreciation for favors or benefits received Loitering- to linger in an aimless way; spend time idly OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

Student-Friendly Definition ACTIVITY: CREATING STUDENT- FRIENDLY EXPLANATIONS Gape - to open the mouth wide involuntarily, as the result of hunger, sleepiness, or absorbed attention Glimpse 1) momentary or slight appearance, 2) a vague idea; inkling.

Scrutinize - to examine in detail with careful or critical attention OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING COLLINS COBUILD STUDENT DICTIONARY http://www.elearnaid.com/coconewstdis.html A STRATEGY Vocabulary Instruction, 2nd Grade OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA If students have the background knowledge required by a passage, their comprehension will be enhanced. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING TEACH OR ACTIVATE NECESSARY BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE. Strategy #3 Example

Prior to passage reading, select and read aloud a book that provides necessary background knowledge Passage: Me and Uncle Romie Background knowledge needed: Life in a big city OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND

EARLY LEARNING ACTIVATING BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE B-K-W-L-Q Background Knowledge

What we want Language to know needed for writing Questions we can now answer Front load, front load, front load!! (Adapted from Ogales KWL by J. Allen) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

If students preview a passage, their comprehension is enhanced. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING DURING READING OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA

Asking students questions during passage reading has proven effectiveness in improving the comprehension of students. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING QUESTIONING THE AUTHOR: AN APPROACH FOR ENHANCING STUDENT ENGAGEMENT WITH TEXT (BECK, MCKEOWN, HAMILTON & KUCAN, 1997)

Comprehension strategy to teach students to construct meaning during reading Queries, or discussion questions, encourage students to engage with ideas in text to build meaning Queries help teachers facilitate group discussion and student-to-student interaction

OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING QUERY EXAMPLES What is the author trying to say? Why do you think the author used the following phrase?

Does this make sense to you? OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA Instruction in specific cognitive strategies can improve reading comprehension for all students and, most particularly, can assist struggling readers. (RAND Reading Study Group, 2002) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

COGNITIVE STRATEGIES Competent Readers Strategies Text Structure Strategies Fix-Up Strategies Reread

Look back Read ahead Restate in your own words OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG

IDEA The ability to identify and take advantage of text organization can contribute to students comprehension. (Dickson, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING TEXT ORGANIZATION Story Grammar

Title, author, setting, main characters, conflict resolution, events, conclusion Patterns of Expository Text Each paragraph is a body of knowledge Determine topic of paragraph Determine critical supporting details

OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING STRATEGY EXAMPLE Paragraph Shrinking Name the who or what. Tell the most important thing about the who or what.

Say the main idea in 10 words or less. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA The main effect of graphic organizers appears to be on the improvement of the readers memory for the content that has been read. (Dickson, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND

EARLY LEARNING GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS Narrative Text (Story Maps) Expository Text (Flow charts, compare/contrast) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING AFTER READING

OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA Fluency is related to reading comprehension. (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998; Fuchs, Fuchs, & Maxwell, 1988) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING FLUENCY

Repeated Reading Cold-timing Accuracy Practice Fluency Building

Hot-timing OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA Engaging students in a discussion can increase their depth of text processing and subsequent comprehension. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING DISCUSSION

Teach discussion behavior. Looks Like Sounds Like Facing peers Using a pleasant voice Making eye contact Sharing opinions and supporting facts Participating Sharing positive

comments Listening Staying on topic OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA Writing about what you have read can improve your comprehension.

Expressing your ideas in writing helps the reader organize ideas. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BIG IDEA Writing about what you have read can improve your

comprehension. Expressing your ideas in writing helps the reader organize ideas. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING Students must Read,

And read, And read, And read, And read some more! OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

WVDE LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE Reading Lesson Plan OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING CONTACT INFORMATION Phyllis Veith, Assistant Director, Office of Special Programs [email protected] Linda Palenchar, Coordinator, Office of Special Programs [email protected]

OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

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