# scan-all-bugs.org

Georeferencing Concepts Georeferencing Concepts Named place: a place of reference in a locality description. Example: Davis in 5 mi N of Davis Extent- the geographic range,

magnitude or distance that a location may actually represent. (With a town, the extent is the polygon that encompasses the area inside the towns boundaries.) Linear extent- what we use for the Point-Radius Method. Defined as the distance from the geographic center of the location to the furthest point of the geographic extent of the location. This is used in the Georef. Calculator to determine Maximum Error.

Georeferencing Concepts coordinateUncertaintyInMeters: The horizontal distance (in meters) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location. Leave the value empty if the uncertainty is unknown, cannot be estimated, or is not applicable (i.e., there are no coordinates). Zero is not a valid value for this term. (from Darwin Core) Maximum

Error Distance: same as coordinateUncertaintyInMeters, except the units are the same as in the locality description, not necessarily in meters. Georeferencing Using MaNIS/HerpNET/ORNIS Guidelines Parallels ofLatitud e Meridians

Longitud of e Graticul Networ ar k MaNIS/HerpNET/ORNIS (MHO) Guidelines http://manisnet.org/GeorefGuide.html uses

point-radius representation of georeferences circle encompasses all sources of uncertainty about the location methodology formalizes assumptions, algorithms, and documentation standards that promote reproducible results methods are universally applicable Data Quality data have the potential to be used in ways unforeseen when collected. the value of the data is directly related to

the fitness for a variety of uses. as data become more accessible many more uses become apparent Chapman 2005 the MaNIS/HerpNET/ORNIS guidelines follow best practices (Chapman and Wieczorek 2006) to enhance data quality and value Georeferencing Using MaNIS/HerpNET/ORNIS Guidelines Locality Types: Named Place Named

Place Used to refer to traditional and non-traditional features (towns, cities, mountains, ranches, highway mile markers, townships, intersections). Use geographic center for the coordinates. Example with shaded urban area: Davis, California Linear extent- Defined as the distance from the geographic center of the location to the furthest point of the geographic extent of the location. We plug this

value in the Georef. Calculator to determine Maximum Error. Locality Types: Named Place - Urban Area Locality consists of a reference to a geographical feature having a spatial extent, example Veronica, Argentina If

the geographic center does not fall within the shaded urban area, choose the nearest point to the center within the shape. Named Place Small town Example: Jean, Nevada Named

Place Remote A locality that does not have a clear boundary on the map. Olancha, California Extent is half the distance to the center of the next nearest named place (or feature), which is Grant, CA.

Locality Types: Named Place Street Address No.10 Downing St., London, England Extent is the smallest area possible that cannot be mistaken for another address, sometimes one half a city block. Named Place Junction Junction of Hwy 80 and Hwy 9, Hidalgo, New Mexico Measure the extent of the junction as if it were a named place. Use the following standards for extent:

10 m for two lane city street or highway, 20 m for four lane highway 30 m for large highways with medians Offsets: Distance from a named place using the center of the named place as a starting point.

Used with a heading to give direction and distance from named place. Georeference an offset on a river or path the same way as a road. Example: 5 miles North of Beatty (on US 95), Nevada

This incorporates error from distance precision and extent, but not direction 5 miles north of Beatty on US 95 Comparing Offsets and Errors Max error by air is 4.95 miles, by road is 2 miles

Locality Type: Named Place Between Two Localities Between two places is treated as a type of named place, where the georeference is the midpoint between the centers of both named places. Example: Between Drooge Riviers Berg Private Nature Reserve and Skulkrans Private Nature Reserve, Province of the Western

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