Unit 11: Abnormal Psychology Day 4: Personality Disorders & Scizophrenia Essential Question What are the causes and effects of psychological disorders? Objectives (write this down!): I can: define the etiology and diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia I can distinguish between
symptoms of various personality disorders DAILY COMMENTARY (in a spiral notebook!): Have you ever met anyone with schizophrenia? If so, describe the persons symptoms and behaviors, and your reaction to them. If not, what do you know about the disorder? What is the difference between major depressive
disorder and bi-polar disorder? Unit 11: Abnormal Psychology Day 4: Scizophrenia & Personality Disorders Today: DC
Glogster Overview Video clips Notes & research PsychSym5 Losing touch with reality Imagine a party activity Turn In: RJ 11.4 & 11.5 For Tonight: Read pages 685-700; & other relevant sections for your disorder
do RJ 11.6 Schizophrenia If depression is the common cold of psychological disorders, schizophrenia is the cancer. Nearly 1 in a 100 suffer from schizophrenia, and throughout the world over 24 million people suffer from this disease (WHO, 2002). Schizophrenia strikes young people as they mature into adults. It affects men and women equally, but men suffer from it more severely than women.
3 Symptoms of Schizophrenia The literal translation is split mind. A group of severe disorders characterized by the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Paranoia
Delusions Word salad Fragmented thinking & speech 4 Disorganized & Delusional Thinking This morning when I was at Hillside [Hospital], I was making a movie. I was surrounded by movie stars Im Marry Poppins. Is this room painted blue to get me upset? My grandmother died four weeks after my eighteenth birthday. (Sheehan, 1982)
Other forms of delusionsfragmented, include, This monologue illustrates delusions of persecution (someone is bizarre thinking
with distorted beliefs following me) or grandeur (I am a called delusions (Im Mary Poppins). king). 5 Disturbed Perceptions
L. Berthold, Untitled. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of Heidelberg Photos of paintings by Krannert Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign August Natter, Witches Head. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of Heidelberg A schizophrenic person may perceive things that are not there (hallucinations). Frequently such hallucinations are auditory and lesser visual, somatosensory, olfactory, or gustatory. 6
Inappropriate Emotions & Actions A schizophrenic person may laugh at the news of someone dying or show no emotion at all (apathy). Patients with schizophrenia may continually rub an arm, rock a chair, or remain motionless for hours (catatonia). 7 Positive and Negative
Symptoms Schizophrenics have inappropriate symptoms (hallucinations, disorganized thinking, deluded ways) that are not present in normal individuals (positive symptoms). Schizophrenics also have an absence of appropriate symptoms (apathy, expressionless faces, rigid bodies) that are present in normal individuals (negative symptoms). 8 Chronic and Acute
Schizophrenia When schizophrenia is slow to develop (chronic/process) recovery is doubtful. Such schizophrenics usually display negative symptoms. When schizophrenia rapidly develops (acute/reactive) recovery is better. Such schizophrenics usually show positive symptoms. 9 Subtypes 10
Understanding Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a disease of the brain exhibited by the symptoms of the mind. Brain Abnormalities Dopamine Overactivity: Researchers found that schizophrenic patients express higher levels of dopamine D4 receptors in the brain. 11 Abnormal Brain Activity
Paul Thompson and Arthur W. Toga, UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging and Judith L. Rapport, National Institute of Mental Health Brain scans show abnormal activity in the frontal cortex, thalamus, and amygdala of schizophrenic patients. Adolescent schizophrenic patients also have brain lesions. 12 Abnormal Brain Morphology Schizophrenia patients may exhibit
morphological changes in the brain like enlargement of fluid-filled ventricles. Both Photos: Courtesy of Daniel R. Weinberger, M.D., NIH-NIMH/ NSC 13 Viral Infection Schizophrenia has also been observed in individuals who contracted a viral infection (flu) during the middle of their fetal development. 14
Genetic Factors The likelihood of an individual suffering from schizophrenia is 50% if their identical twin has the disease (Gottesman, 1991). 0 10 Identical 20 30 40
50 Both parents Fraternal One parent Sibling Nephew or niece Unrelated 15 Genetic Factors The following shows the prevalence of schizophrenia in identical twins as seen
in different countries. 16 Psychological Factors Psychological and environmental factors can trigger schizophrenia if the individual is genetically predisposed (Nicols & Gottesman, 1983). The genetically identical Genain sisters suffer from schizophrenia. Two more than others, thus there are contributing environmental factors.
Courtesy of Genain Family Genain Sisters 17 Warning Signs Early warning signs of schizophrenia include: 1. A mothers long lasting schizophrenia.
2. Birth complications, oxygen deprivation and lowbirth weight. 3. Short attention span and poor muscle coordination. 4. Disruptive and withdrawn behavior. 5.
Emotional unpredictability. 6. Poor peer relations and solo play. 18 Personality Disorders Personality disorders are characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that
impair social functioning. They are usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions. 19 Dissociative Identity Disorder Lose track of identity and develop at least 2 others Currently just 30,000 diagnosed cases worldwide Often caused by traumatic sexual abuse Commercial Film: 3 Faces of Eve (recommended)
roses are red, violets are blue, I have DID and I do too Antisocial Personality Disorder A disorder in which the person (usually men) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. Formerly, this person was called a sociopath or psychopath. 21 Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder
Like mood disorders and schizophrenia, antisocial personality disorder has biological and psychological reasons. Youngsters, before committing a crime, respond with lower levels of stress hormones than others do at their age.
22 Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder PET scans of 41 murderers revealed reduced activity in the frontal lobes. In a follow-up study repeat offenders had 11% less frontal lobe activity compared to normals (Raine et al., 1999; 2000). Courtesy of Adrian Raine, University of Southern California Normal
Murderer 23 Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder The likelihood that one will commit a crime doubles when childhood poverty is compounded with obstetrical complications (Raine et al., 1999; 2000). 24
Rates of Psychological Disorders 25 Rates of Psychological Disorders The prevalence of psychological disorders during the previous year is shown below (WHO, 2004). 27 Risk and Protective Factors
Risk and protective factors for mental disorders (WHO, 2004). 28 Risk and Protective Factors 29
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