Second part of Lecture 2 - Washington State University

Second part of Lecture 2 - Washington State University

Circulation and gas exchange II (Chapter 42) Keywords

Fish gill Filaments Lamellae

Tracheal system Tracheoles Gastrovascular

cavity Lung Tidal ventilation Ventilation in birds

Fish Gill Rather than being a solid

structure, the fish gill is finely subdivided to enhance gas exchange area

filaments Lamellae

lamellae Countercurrent flow

NOT countercurrent Countercurrent

Are gills effective in increasing surface area? Surface area 1 kg

0.06 m2 1 kg

1.16 m2 Lime jello cube

20 fold increase due to gills How do gill surface areas compare

among different fishes? Numbers correspond to arbitrary units per gram body weight

Tracheal systems in insects Tracheoles supply tissues

Diffusion distance from tracheole to mitochondria is short

Lungs Internal sacs Unlike insect tracheal system lungs do not contact entire body

Circulatory system draws oxygen from lungs to tissues Found in snails, a few fishes, spiders, vertebrates

Structure of the mammalian lung Tidal ventilation of mammalian lung

Negative pressure breathing Tidal ventilation Tidal volume - volume inhaled and

exhaled (around 500 ml in humans) Tidal volume is much less than total volume of lungs (several liters in humans) Thus residual volume remains after

exhaling This is inefficient Birds have a more

sophisticated type of lung ventilation Birds have high metabolic rates

Can be exposed to lower oxygen concentrations in high altitude flight Ventilation is not tidal Air flows through the lungs

The avian respiratory system The control of breathing

Human brain monitors carbon dioxide level (detected as a drop in blood pH) Hyperventilation in divers Diving mammals can tolerate high blood

carbon dioxide Organismal respiration -- a simple view

O2 mitochondria

O2 CO2 CO2

O2 CO2+H2O

HCO3 +H - +

Why does the body sense carbon dioxide rather than oxygen? Decreased oxygen corresponds to increased

carbon dioxide Increased carbon dioxide results in acidification which can readily be detected

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORY Response-Stimulus-Response model of learning (R-S-R)

    BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORY Response-Stimulus-Response model of learning (R-S-R)

    Harold Kelley's Attribution Theory We use 3 types of information in making decisions about the causation of action in a situation: 1. Distinctiveness - Observe actor in similar situations. (low distinctiveness implies personal cause; high distinctiveness implies situational cause).
  • Windows and .Net Threads

    Windows and .Net Threads

    Windows is a preemptive multi-tasking system. Each task is scheduled to run for some brief time period before another task is given control of a CPU core. Unlike Unix and Linux, in Windows threads are the basic unit of scheduling....
  • Case C-29/10 Heiko Koelzsch v. État du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

    Case C-29/10 Heiko Koelzsch v. État du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

    LEGAL CONTEXT: ARTICLE 6 ROME CONVENTION . INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS. Paragraph 1 - Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 3 (contract governed b the law chosen by the parties), in a contract of employment a choice of law made by the...
  • Strategy Overview - Montana

    Strategy Overview - Montana

    PHSD Integrated Management System. Brainstorm. Tasks. Identify Core Activities. Develop Program Logic Model. RefineProgram Logic Model. Work Plan Training. Logic Model. Training. Select Core Activity to Develop First Work Plan. Prepare First Work Plan Independently. Learning Exercise: Review First Work...
  • Day 29 Presentation - High School Math Teachers

    Day 29 Presentation - High School Math Teachers

    INTRODUCTION In this presentation, we are interested in summarizing the contents of day 26, 27 and 28 and examine ourselves how best we understood the topics. We are going to discuss the methods of graphing functions, the inverses of functions...
  • Maps What are the different kinds of maps?

    Maps What are the different kinds of maps?

    Physical Maps Lets look at am examples of a physical map. Physical Maps There are different types of physical maps. Relief Maps - Show the difference in height between land Elevation Maps - Show the elevation, or height above sea...
  • Modelling of Spudcan and Suction Caisson Performance M.J.

    Modelling of Spudcan and Suction Caisson Performance M.J.

    Investigating Spudcan and Caisson Foundation Response in the UWA Drum Centrifuge Based on the experimental results (and existing theory) a force-resultant model for describing the behaviour of caissons in clays has been developed.
  • Barajlar ve Baraj Hazneleri

    Barajlar ve Baraj Hazneleri

    General guidelines for a reservoir location: Cost of the dam Cost of real estate Topographic conditions to store water Possibility of deep reservoir Avoiding from tributary areas Quality of stored water Reliable hill-slopes Reservoir Yield Yield: Amount of water that...