Section 1: Dawn of an Industrial Age

Section 1: Dawn of an Industrial Age

Section 1: Dawn of an Industrial Age Agriculture Spurs Industry In 1750, most people worked the land, using handmade tools They lived in simple cottages lit by firelight and candles o Made their own clothing o Grew their own food

o Might exchange goods at a weekly outdoor market Then, a second agricultural revolution took place that greatly improved the quality and quantity of farm products Agriculture Spurs Industry Farming Methods Improve Jethro Tull invented a new mechanical device, the

seed drill, to aid farmers (helped trigger the Industrial Revolution) o It deposited seeds in rows rather than scattering them wastefully over the land New Technology Becomes Key An Energy Revolution During the 1700s, people began to harness new sources of energy One power source was coal, used to develop the

steam engine o In 1712, British inventor Thomas Newcomen had developed a steam engine powered by coal to pump water out of mines (helped trigger the Industrial Revolution) New Technology Becomes Key Scottish engineer James Watt looked at

Newcomens invention in 1764 and set out to make improvements on the engine in order to make it more efficient o Watts engine, after several years of work, would become a key power source of the Industrial Revolution o The steam engine opened the door not only to operating machinery but eventually to powering locomotives and steamships Known as the Father of the Industrial

Revolution New Technology Becomes Key Before long, cotton mills using steam engines were found all over Britain o Since steam engines were fired by coal, not water, they did not need to be located by rivers

New Technology Becomes Key The Quality of Iron Improves Coal was a source of fuel in the production of iron A material needed for the construction of machines and steam engines The Darby family of Coalbrookdale pioneered new methods of producing iron In 1709, Abraham Darby used coal instead of charcoal to smelt iron o Separate iron from its ore

(helped trigger the Industrial Revolution) New Technology Becomes Key Darbys experiments led him to produce less expensive and better-quality iron Used to produce parts for the steam engines o Both his son and grandson continued to improve on his methods

o Abraham Darby III built the worlds first iron bridge In the decades that followed, high-quality iron was used more and more widely, especially after the world turned to building railroads Britain Leads the Way Why Britain? The Industrial Revolution began in Great

Britain in the 1780s Took several decades to spread to other Western nations 5 factors contributed to make Great Britain the starting place Agrarian revolution Increase in population Supply of money Natural resources

The Textile Industry Advances The Textile Industry The Industrial Revolution first took hold in Britains largest industrytextiles In the 1600s, cotton cloth imported from India had become popular British merchants tried to organize a cotton cloth industry at home They developed the cottage industry

o Raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their own homes The Textile Industry Advances Inventions Speed Production Under the cottage industry, production was slow As the demand for cloth grew, inventors came up with a string of remarkable devices that

revolutionized the British textile industry John Kay o Invented the flying shuttle 1733 o Enabled weavers to work so fast that they soon outpaced spinners The Textile Industry Advances James Hargreaves

o Invented a machine called the spinning jenny 1764 o Spun many threads at the same time o Provided more thread so cloth could be produced at a faster rate o Spinners now produced thread faster than weavers could use it

The Textile Industry Advances Eli Whitney o Invented the cotton gin 1793 o Separated the seeds from the raw cotton at a fast rate 50 times faster than a human o Cotton production increased exponentially

The Textile Industry Advances Factories Are Born in Britain The new machines doomed the cottage industry o They were too large and expensive to be operated at home Instead, manufacturers built long sheds to house the machines

o At first, they located the sheds near rapidly moving streams, harnessing the water power to run the machines Later, machines were powered by steam engines Will become known as the Factory System The Transportation Revolution Transportation Revolution As production increased, entrepreneurs needed faster and cheaper methods of moving goods from

place to place The Transportation Revolution Richard Trevithick Invented the first steam locomotive 1804 Pulled 10 tons of ore and 70 people at 5

mph o Led to the first real railroad, Stockton & Darlington o Connected Liverpool to Manchester The railroad did not have to follow the course of a river o Meant that tracks could go places where rivers did not The Transportation Revolution

Robert Fulton Invented the steam boat 1807 Attached a steam engine to a ship which propelled it by making a paddle wheel to turn o Named it the Clermont

Section 2: Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution People Move to New Industrial Cities For the millions of workers who crowded into the new factories, the industrial age brought poverty and harsh living conditions Working people would suffer with: Dangerous working conditions

Unsafe, unsanitary, and overcrowded housing Poverty People Move to New Industrial Cities People Move to New Industrial Cities The Industrial Revolution brought rapid urbanization, or the movement of people to cities What led to urbanization? Changes in farming Soaring population growth Demand for workers

People Move to New Industrial Cities Almost overnight, small towns around coal or iron mines mushroomed into cities Other cities grew up around the factories that entrepreneurs built in once-quiet market towns New Social Classes Emerge The Industrial Revolution created a new middle class

along with the working class The Industrial Middle Class o Those in the middle class owned and operated the new factories, mines, and railroads, among other industries Middle-class families lived in well-furnished, spacious homes on paved streets and had a ready supply of water They wore fancy clothing and ate well Only a few had sympathy for the poor

New Social Classes Emerge The Industrial Working Class o When farm families moved to the new industrial cities, they became workers in mines or factories Many felt lost and bewildered They faced tough working conditions in uncomfortable environments

o They packed into tiny rooms in tenements, or multistory buildings divided into apartments New Social Classes Emerge o These tenements had no running water, only community pumps o There was no sewage or sanitation system, so wastes and garbage rotted in the streets o Sewage was also dumped into rivers, which created an

overwhelming stench and contaminated drinking water This led to the spread of disease, such as cholera Tenement Life in Factories and Mines Working in a factory system differed greatly from

working on a farm o In rural villages, people worked hard, but their work varied according to the season o Life was also hard for poor rural workers who were part of the cottage industry, but at least they worked at their own pace In the grim factories of industrial towns, workers faced a rigid schedule set by the factory whistle Life in Factories and Mines Working hours were long, with shifts lasting from 12

to 16 hours, six or seven days a week Workers could only take breaks when the factory owners gave permission Exhausted workers suffered accidents from machines that had no safety devices They might lose a finger, a limb, or even their lives In textile mills, workers constantly breathed air filled with lint, which damaged their lungs Those workers who became sick or injured lost

their jobs Life in Factories and Mines Factory work created a double burden for women o Their new jobs took them out of their homes for 12 hours or more a day o They then returned to their tenements, which might consist of one damp room with a single bed

They had to feed and clothe their families, clean, and cope with such problems as sickness and injury Life in Factories and Mines Miners Face Worse Conditions The Industrial Revolution increased the demand for iron and coal, which in turn increased the need for miners Although miners were paid more, working conditions in the mines were even worse than in the factories o They worked in darkness, and the coal dust destroyed their lungs

o There were always the dangers of explosions, flooding, and collapsing tunnels o Women and children carted heavy loads of coal, sometimes on all fours in low passages o They also climbed ladders carrying heavy baskets of coal several times a day Life in Factories and Mines Children Have Dangerous Jobs Factories and mines also hired many boys and girls These children often started working at age seven or

eight, a few as young as five Nimble-fingered and quick-moving, they changed spools in the hot and humid textile mills where sometimes they could not see because of all the dust They also crawled under machinery to repair broken threads in the mills Life in Factories and Mines Conditions were even worse for children who worked

in the mines Some sat all day in the dark, opening and closing air vents Others hauled coal carts in the extreme heat Because children had helped with work on the farm, parents accepted the idea of child labor The wages the children earned were needed to keep their families from starving Adolescent girls from Bibb Mfg. Co. in Macon, Georgia

Some boys and girls were so small they had to climb up on to the spinning frame to mend broken threads and to put back the empty bobbins. Bibb Mill No. 1. Macon, Ga. A moments glimpse of the outer world. Said she was 11 years old. Been working over a year. Rhodes Mfg. Co. Lincolnton, N.C. A,B,C's. Said, "Yes I want to learn but can't when I work all the time." Been in the mills 4 years, 3 years in the Olympia

Mill. Columbia, S.C One of the spinners in Whitnel Cotton Mill. She was 51 inches high. Has been in the mill one year. Sometimes works at night. Runs 4 sides - 48 cents a day. When asked how old she was, she hesitated, then said, "I don't remember," then added confidentially, "I'm not old enough to work, but do just the same." View of the Ewen Breaker of the Pa. Coal Co. The dust was so dense at times as to obscure the view. This dust penetrated the utmost recesses of the boys' lungs. A kind of slave-driver sometimes stands over the boys,

prodding or kicking them into obedience. S. Pittston, Pa young driver in the Brown mine. Has been driving one year. Works 7 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. daily. Brown W. Va as scavengers and piecers. Scavengers had to pick up the loose cotton from under the machinery. This was extremely dangerous as the children were expected to carry out the task while the machine was still working. Francis Lance, 5 years old, 41 inches high. He jumps on and off

moving trolley cars at the risk of his life. St. Louis, Mo. Tony Casale, age 11, been selling 4 years. Sells sometimes until 10 p.m. His paper told me the boy had shown him the marks on his arm where his father had bitten him for not selling more papers. He (the boy) said, "Drunken men say bad words to us." Hartford, Conn. Life in Factories and Mines Child labor reform laws called factory acts were

passed in the early 1800s These laws were passed to reduce a childs workday to twelve hours and also to remove children under the age of eight or nine from the cotton mills o Because the laws were generally not enforced, British lawmakers formed teams of inspectors to ensure that factories and mines obeyed the laws in the 1830s and 1840s o More laws were then passed to shorten the workday for women and require that child

The Results of Industrialization Since the 1800s, people have debated whether the Industrial Revolution was a blessing or a curse The early industrial age brought terrible hardships In time, however, reformers pressed for laws to improve working conditions Labor unions won the right to bargain with employers for better wages, hours, and working

conditions Eventually working-class men gained the right to vote, which gave them political power Section 3: New Ways of Thinking Socialist Thought Emerges The transition to an industrialized society was very hard on workers

It made their lives difficult and forced them to live in crowded slums They had to work long hours at mind-numbing tasks Reformers of this era believed that industrial capitalism was heartless and brutal They wanted a new kind of society Moderates Wanted gradual changes such as fewer hours, better benefits and

safe working conditions Radicals Wanted to abolish the capitalist system entirely Socialist Thought Emerges To end poverty and injustice, they offered a radical solution Socialism The

people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the means of production o Factories, farms, railways, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods Socialist Thought Emerges Robert Owen He believed there was a way he could change society for the better These early socialists were called Utopians Implied that they were impractical dreamers

Owen set up his cotton mill in New Lanark, Scotland, as a model village Reduced working hours from 17 to 10 Built homes for workers Started a school for children Opened a company store where workers could buy food and clothes Proved that employers could offer decent living and working conditions and still run a profitable business Socialist Thought Emerges Karl Marx

German Philosopher Condemned the ideas of the Utopians as unrealistic idealism Teamed up with another German socialist, Friedrich Engels, whose father owned a textile factory in England Marx and Engels wrote a pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, published in 1848

Socialist Thought Emerges Communism A form of socialism in which an inevitable struggle between social classes would lead to the creation of a classless society where all means of production would be owned by the community Karl Marx theorized that economics was the driving force in history Argued that there was the history of class struggles between the haves and the have-nots o The haves have always owned the means of production and thus

controlled society and all its wealth In industrialized Europe, Marx said, the haves were the bourgeoisie The have-nots were the proletariat o Working class Socialist Thought Emerges According to Marx, the modern class struggle pitted the bourgeoisie against the proletariat In the end, he predicted the proletariat would be triumphant Workers would take control of the means of production and set up a

classless, communist society o Such a society would mark the end of the struggles people had endured throughout history, because wealth and power would be equally shared Marx hated capitalism Believed it created prosperity for only a few and poverty for many o He called for an international struggle to bring about its downfall Workers of all countries, unite! Marxs Theories History did not go by Marxs plan

Why didnt Karl Marxs ideas take hold? Workers could buy more Workers gained the right to vote and used it to correct the problems of society Remained loyal to their nations rather than ally with workers in other countries to promote revolution Section 4: The Industrial Revolution Spreads

New Industrial Powers Emerge The first phase of industrialization had largely been forged from iron, powered by steam engines, and driven by the British textile industry By the mid-1800s, the Industrial Revolution entered a second phase o New industrial powers emerged o Factories powered by electricity used innovative processes to turn out new products

o As the twentieth century dawned, this second Industrial Revolution transformed the economies of the Western world Technology Sparks Industrial Growth Alfred Nobel Invented dynamite in 1866 An explosive much safer than others to use at the time Widely used in construction

and, to Nobels dismay, in warfare o Earned Nobel a huge fortune o He willed to fund the famous Nobel prizes that Technology Sparks Industrial Growth In the late 1800s, a new power source electricity replaced

steam as the dominant source of industrial power Michael Faraday Created the first simple electric motor and the first dynamo A machine that generates electricity o Today, all electrical generators and transformers work on the

Technology Sparks Industrial Growth Thomas Alva Edison Made the first electric light bulb Soon, Edisons incandescent lamps: illuminated whole cities The pace of city life quickened, and factories could continue to operate after dark By the 1890s, cables carried electrical power from dynamos to factories

By the time he died, Edison held more than a thousand patents Technology Sparks Industrial Growth New Methods of Production The basic features of the factory system remained the same during the 1800s Factories still used large numbers of workers and power-driven machines to mass-produce goods

Interchangeable Parts To improve efficiency, manufacturers designed products with identical components that could be used in place of one another Interchangeable parts simplified both the assemble and repair of products Technology Sparks Industrial Growth Assembly

Line o Workers on an assembly line add parts to a product that moves along a belt from one workstation to the next o A different person performs each task along the assembly line o This division of labor made production faster and more cheaper, lowering the price of goods o Also took much of the joy out of the

work itself Transportation and Communication The Automobile Age Begins Nikolaus Otto Invented a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine Karl Benz - 1886 Received a patent for the first automobile,

which had three wheels Gottlieb Daimler Introduced the first four-wheeled automobile People laughed at the horseless carriages, but they quickly transformed transportation Transportation and Communication Henry Ford Started making automobiles that

reached the breathtaking speed of 25 mph In the early 1900s, Ford began using the assembly line to massproduce cars Made famous by his Model T automobile Made the US a leader in the automobile industry $5 dollar days Transportation and

Communication Humans Take Flight The internal combustion engine powered more than cars Made possible the sustained, pilot controlled flight Orville and Wilbur Wright Designed and flew a flimsy airplane at Kitty Hawk, NC

Although their flying machine stayed in flight only a few seconds, it ushered in the air age Transportation and Communication Ferdinand von Zeppelin Inventor of the rigid airship, or dirigible balloon known as a Zeppelin Transportation and

Communication Rapid Communication A revolution in communications also made the world smaller Samuel F.B. Morse Developed the telegraph 1832 Could send coded messages over the wires by means of electricity First words out of the telegraph What hath God

wrought? In 1848, a group of newspapers pooled their resources to collect and share news over the telegraph This organization was the Associated Press Transportation and Communication Alexander Graham Bell Invented the telephone 1876 Not coast to coast until 1915 Very slow and expensive

Transportation and Communication Guglielmo Marconi Invented the radio 1901 Sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic Radio would become a cornerstone of

todays global communications network Section 5: New Science and Ideas New Science and Ideas During the 1800s and early 1900s, scientific

discoveries were beginning to unravel some mysteries Science Takes New Directions Debating the Earths Age The new science of geology opened avenues of debate Charles Lyell Wrote Principles of Geology

Offered evidence to show that Earth had formed over millions of years His successors concluded that Earth was at least two billion years old and that life didnt appear until long after earth was forced These ideas did not seem to agree with biblical Science Takes New Directions Charles Darwin Published On the Origin of Species Argued that all forms of life, including human

beings, had evolved into their present state over millions of years To explain the long, slow process of evolution, he put forward the theory of natural selection o Natural forces selected those with physical traits best adapted to their environment to survive and to pass the trait on to their offspring Became known as survival of the fittest Science Takes New Directions

The Fight Against Disease Louis Pasteur In 1870, clearly showed the link between microbes and disease Went on to develop of vaccines against rabies and anthrax Discovered a process called pasteurization that killed diseasecarrying microbes in milk Science Takes New Directions Edward Jenner

Discovered the Smallpox vaccination Used a small boy as an experiment Science Takes New Directions Gregor Mendel Experimented with pea plants Concluded that characteristics are passed from one generation to the

next by tiny particles called genes His work became the basis for genetics Social Sciences Other scientists used the scientific method to study human behavior Sociology the study of human behavior in groups Psychology the science of human behavior in

individuals Social Sciences Ivan Pavlov Believed that human actions were unconscious reactions to stimuli and could be

changed by training Pavlovs bell Social Sciences Sigmund Freud Held that an unconscious part of the mind governs human behavior Led to psychoanalysis, a

method of treatment to discover peoples motives

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