Section 3.3 The Cell Membrane - Marion County Public Schools

Section 3.3 The Cell Membrane - Marion County Public Schools

Section 3.3 The Cell Membrane KEY CONCEPT The cell membrane is a barrier that separates a cell from the external environment. Objectives Describe the structure of the cell membrane. Summarize how chemical signals are transmitted across the cell membrane. Functions of the Cell Membrane The cell membrane, or the plasma membrane, forms a boundary between a cell and the

outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell. Protects Allows the cell. cell to respond to its surroundings Constantly taking in and getting rid of various molecules

Phosopholipids The cell membrane consists of a double layer of phospholipids that contain a variety of other molecules. A phospholipid is a molecule composed of three basic parts: a charged phosphate group glycerol two fatty acid chains

Phospholipids The glycerol and the phosphate groups form the head of a phospholipid. The fatty acids form the tail. The head bears a charge, so it is polar. Remember the polar water molecule? What does polar mean? The polar head of the phospholipid forms hydrogen bonds with water molecules. In contrast, the fatty acid tails are nonpolar and cannot form hydrogen bonds with water. As a result, the nonpolar tails are

attracted to each other and repelled by water. Other Molecules Other molecules are embedded within the phospholipid layers. They give the membrane properties and characteristics it would not otherwise have. These molecules serve diverse functions.

Here are a few examples: Cholesterol molecules strengthen the cell membrane. Some proteins extend through one or both phospholipid layers and help materials cross the membrane. Other proteins are key components of the cytoskeleton. Different cell types have different membrane proteins. Carbohydrates attached to membrane proteins serve as identification tags, enabling cells to distinguish one type of cell from another. Lets Take A Closer Look!

Fluid Mosaic Model The fluid mosaic model was designed by Scientists. It describes the arrangement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane. It is named for two characteristics.

First, the cell membrane is flexible, not rigid. As a result, the phospholipids in each layer can move from side to side and slide past each other. This makes the membrane behave like a fluid, similar to a film of oil on the surface of water. One problemproteins embedded in the membrane do not flip vertically. If one part of a protein is outside the membrane, it will stay outside the membrane. Second, the variety of molecules studding the membrane is similar to the arrangement of colorful tiles with different textures and patterns that make up a dynamic mosaic.

Selective Permeability The cell membrane has the property of selective permeability, which means it allows some, but not all, materials to cross. The terms semipermeable and selectively permeable also refer to

this property. Example in the book????? Advantages of Selective Permeability Selective permeability enables a cell to maintain homeostasis in spite of unpredictable, changing conditions outside the cell. HOW?

Allows a cell to maintain certain functions by controlling the import and export of certain molecules and ions. Advantages of Selective Permeability Molecules cross the membrane in several ways. Some methods require the cell to expend energy; others do not. How a particular molecule crosses the membrane depends on the molecules size, polarity, and

concentration inside versus outside the cell. Small nonpolar molecules usually easily pass through the cell membrane. Small polar molecules are transported via proteins. Large molecules are moved in vesicles. MAIN IDEA Chemical signals are transmitted across the cell membrane. Cell membranes may secrete

molecules and may contain identifying molecules, such as carbohydrates. All these molecules can act as signals to communicate with other cells. How are these signals recognized? Receptors A receptor is a protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response.

It recognizes and binds to only certain molecules, which ensures that the right cell gets the right signal at the right time. The molecule a receptor binds to is called a ligand. When a receptor and a ligand bind, they change shape. This change is critical because it affects how a

receptor interacts with other molecules. Two major types of receptors are present in your cells. Types of Receptors Intracellular Receptor A molecule may cross the cell membrane and bind to an intracellular receptor. Intracellular means within, or inside, a cell. Molecules that cross the membrane are generally nonpolar and may be relatively

small. Many hormones fit within this category. Types of Receptors Membrane Receptor A molecule that cannot cross the membrane may bind to a receptor in the cell membrane. The receptor then sends the message to the cell interior. Although the receptor binds to a signal molecule outside the cell, the entire receptor changes shapeeven

the part inside the cell. This causes molecules inside the cell to respond. What do they do? These molecules, in turn, start a complicated chain of events inside the cell that tells the cell what to do. Remember hydrophilic and hydrophobic?????

The phospholipid head is hydrophilic, or waterloving. The phospholipid tail is hydrophobic, or waterfearing. Phospholipids bury their nonpolar tails within the bilayer, leaving their polar heads at the surface. They naturally form into a self-enclosed shape, so no hydrophobic edge of the bilayer is exposed to water. This property makes the bilayer selfhealing because phospholipids will quickly rearrange themselves to cover any surface break that exposes the hydrophilic tailsto water.

Review How are cytoskeleton proteins involved in the membrane? They are attached to the inside of the membrane and help support it. What is the function of the protein channels? They

provide passageways for materials to cross the membrane. Which part of the membrane is nonpolar? The inside! Answer the Infer Question Nonpolar. If cholesterol were polar, it would form hydrogen bonds with the polar heads and water. Instead, cholesterol is located between the fatty acid chains.

Quiz on Section 3.3 Friday! Dont panic. Read your on this section for a 10 question quiz tomorrow! We will then share your cell Models, have Fun Friday and color your Turkeys for the Candy Bar contest! You can finish coloring your Turkey at home to win! Bring it in Monday (write your name in pencil on the back)

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