Sediment Color

Sediment Color

[ROCKS &] SEDIMENT NOTES come from ROCKS!! There are 3 Main Rock Types, each with Subtypes

IGNEOUS ROCKS SUBTYPES & ORIGIN: EXTRUSIVE LAVA ON EARTHS SURFACE INTRUSIVE MAGMA BELOW EARTHS SURFACE Pumice, Obsidian,

Basalt Igneous EXTRUSIVE Rocks pumice obsidian basalt Granite Igneous INTRUSIVE Rock Granite

is found in many colors due to the change in chemical composition caused by the trace elements found within and around it SEDIMENTARY ROCKS SUBTYPES & ORIGIN: CLASTIC FRAGMENTS PIECES OF BROKEN ROCKS NONCLASTIC

ORGANICS & CHEMICAL PROCESSES LIVING THINGS & PRECIPITATES/EVAPORITES Sandstone, Shale, Conglomerate Clastic Sedimentary Rocks sandstone conglomerate shale

Limestone, Coal, Coral Reefs Nonclastic (Organic) Sedimentary Rocks limestone (shells) reefs) (coal) (coral Gypsum, Rock Salt, Limestone (caves)

Nonclastic (Chemical) Sedimentary Rocks (Gypsum ) Rock Salt Limestone (caves) (& precipitate in seawater)

METAMORPHIC ROCKS SUBTYPES & ORIGIN: FOLIATED Minerals from parent rock align to create bands, layers or stripes MUST KNOW PARENT ROCKS UNFOLIATED Minerals from parent rock seem to blend; no obvious bands or layers

MUST KNOW PARENT ROCKS Slate, Schist, Gneiss Foliated Metamorphic Rocks Slate (from shale) granite) Schist (from phyllite)

Gneiss (from Marble, Quartzite Unfoliated Metamorphic Rock Marble (from limestone) sandstone) Quartzite (from

SEDIMENT COLOR Can help you identify what mineral/rock the sediment is made of. Helps determine its source. SEDIMENT SHAPE Running

river water smooths out the surface of a sediment grain as it travels to the ocean. Weathering and erosion also smooth out sediment. The rounder the sediment is, the farther it has traveled from its source.

Rounded Traveled very far Angular Close to its origin ANGULAR ROUNDED SEDIMENT SIZE Small sediments: low energy beach (little to no waves needed to move them)

Large sediments: high energy beach (big, strong waves needed) Biggest Boulders Very high wave energy

Cobbles Pebbles Sand Silt Very low wave energy Smallest Clay *Exception clay requires very highException clay requires very high energy to

be moved 4 TYPES OF SEDIMENTS Terrigenous - from continents (aka Lithogeneous) Biogenous plant or animal origin

Hydrogenous - precipitated from water Cosmogenous - from outer space TERRIGENOUS SEDIMENTS Covers

approximately 45% of the ocean floor Composed of weathered rock material from land *Most common composition: QUARTZ (SiO2) CLAY MINERALS

TERRIGENOUS SED., CONT. *When found on continental margins: - Carried to the ocean by rivers - Coarse sediment is nearest to the shore - Finer sediment is found offshore TERRIGENOUS SED., CONT. *When found in deep ocean basins: - Carried by turbidity currents & found near continents - Carried by wind (clay size particles) and can be found far from land

BIOGENOUS Covers about 55% of the ocean floor. SEDIMENTS *From benthic organisms: -coral reef debris & shell fragments *From zooplankton - Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) composition: Foraminifera & Coccolithophores

- Silicate (SiO2)composition: Radiolaria & Diatoms Biogenous, Contd. Can range in size from coarse to fine Predominantly shells and skeletons

Oozes! (consistency of thick mud; produced as shells decompose) Calcareous ooze dredged from the Arctic Ocean Bottom. Photo: Bogdan Onac HYDROGENOUS

SEDIMENTS *Manganese nodules (deep ocean basin) from: - hydrothermal vent water *Evaporites: -restricted circulation + high evaporation = precipitation of salts -originate from chemical reactions that occur in the existing sediment COSMOGENOUS

SEDIMENTS Always <1% of a sediment Rain down uniformly from space, but most abundant in deep ocean sediments because not "diluted" by other kinds of sediments *Meteorite fragments & dust *Rare earth elements

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